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CLC number: TP311

On-line Access: 2015-12-07

Received: 2015-03-19

Revision Accepted: 2015-08-26

Crosschecked: 2015-11-11

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Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Francisco Ortin

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1199-8649

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Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2015 Vol.16 No.12 P.995-1017

http://doi.org/10.1631/FITEE.1500083


Generating native user interfaces for multiple devices by means of model transformation


Author(s):  Ignacio Marin, Francisco Ortin, German Pedrosa, Javier Rodriguez

Affiliation(s):  Department of Research and Development, CTIC Foundation, Gijon 33203, Spain; more

Corresponding email(s):   info@fundacionctic.org, ortin@uniovi.es

Key Words:  Model-to-model transformation, Native user interfaces, Model-based user interfaces, Model-driven engineering


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Ignacio Marin, Francisco Ortin, German Pedrosa, Javier Rodriguez. Generating native user interfaces for multiple devices by means of model transformation[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2015, 16(12): 995-1017.

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Abstract: 
In the last years, the types of devices used to access information systems have notably increased using different operating systems, screen sizes, interaction mechanisms, and software features. This device fragmentation is an important issue to tackle when developing native mobile service front-end applications. To address this issue, we propose the generation of native user interfaces (UIs) by means of model transformations, following the model-based user interface (MBUI) paradigm. The resulting MBUI framework, called LIZARD, generates applications for multiple target platforms. LIZARD allows the definition of applications at a high level of abstraction, and applies model transformations to generate the target native UI considering the specific features of target platforms. The generated applications follow the UI design guidelines and the architectural and design patterns specified by the corresponding operating system manufacturer. The objective is not to generate generic applications following the lowest-common-denominator approach, but to follow the particular guidelines specified for each target device. We present an example application modeled in LIZARD, generating different UIs for Windows Phone and two types of Android devices (smartphones and tablets).

The authors submitted an extensive paper on the generation of native user interfaces using an MDE approach. This study presents LIZARD, a model-based framework for generating user interfaces that are native to various operating systems of different platforms based on model trasformation, design guidelines that are specific to each platform/system, and design patterns that are applicable to this context. In particular, it introduces a variation of the Cameleron Reference Framework (CRF) in which model-based user interface design is structured into four layers. Instead of doing so, LIZARD introduces a platform-specific model that addresses the specific aspects of a platform running a particular operating system. A running example is demonstrated for three native user interfaces: a Windows Phone smartphone, an Android tablet, and an Android smartphone.

使用模型变换为多种终端生成原生用户界面

目的:近年来,使用不同操作系统、屏幕尺寸、交互机制和软件特征访问信息系统的终端种类不断增加。为此,本研究解决开发原生移动服务前端应用(front-end applications)过程中终端类型碎片化(fragmentation)问题。
创新点:遵照基于模型的用户界面(MBUI)范式,使用模型变换生成原生用户界面。本研究并非遵循“最小公分母方法”生成通用应用,而是根据特定目标终端限定的特别规则生成应用。
方法:本文提出LIZARD,这一MBUI框架可以为多种目标平台生成应用。LIZARD支持在高抽象层级定义应用,并在考虑目标平台特性的前提下使用模型变换生成目标原生用户界面。其生成的应用符合用户界面设计准则,符合相应操作系统所限定的架构及设计模式。
结论:本文给出一个示例,使用LIZARD建模,可以分别生成用于Windows Phone、Android智能手机、Android平板等不同终端用户界面。评估结果显示,对于这三种应用,用户平均满意度全部超过7.7分(满分9分)。LIZARD原型、源代码及文中给出的应用示例,可从https://bitbucket.org/fundacionctic/lizard自由获取。

关键词:模型-模型变换;原生用户界面;基于模型用户界面;模型驱动工程

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