Full Text:   <113>

Summary:  <65>

CLC number: TP242

On-line Access: 2020-01-13

Received: 2019-07-30

Revision Accepted: 2019-12-17

Crosschecked: 2019-12-25

Cited: 0

Clicked: 397

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Gim Song Soh

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0042-5151

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2019 Vol.20 No.12 P.1618-1631

10.1631/FITEE.1900384


Design innovation of mesoscale robotic swarms: applications to cooperative urban sensing and mapping


Author(s):  Audelia G. Dharmawan, Gim Song Soh, Shaohui Foong, Roland Bouffanais, Kristin L. Wood

Affiliation(s):  Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore

Corresponding email(s):   sohgimsong@sutd.edu.sg

Key Words:  System-of-systems design, Mesoscale robot, Swarm, Urban sensing


Audelia G. Dharmawan, Gim Song Soh, Shaohui Foong, Roland Bouffanais, Kristin L. Wood. Design innovation of mesoscale robotic swarms: applications to cooperative urban sensing and mapping[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2019, 20(12): 1618-1631.

@article{title="Design innovation of mesoscale robotic swarms: applications to cooperative urban sensing and mapping",
author="Audelia G. Dharmawan, Gim Song Soh, Shaohui Foong, Roland Bouffanais, Kristin L. Wood",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
volume="20",
number="12",
pages="1618-1631",
year="2019",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/FITEE.1900384"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Design innovation of mesoscale robotic swarms: applications to cooperative urban sensing and mapping
%A Audelia G. Dharmawan
%A Gim Song Soh
%A Shaohui Foong
%A Roland Bouffanais
%A Kristin L. Wood
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 20
%N 12
%P 1618-1631
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.1900384

TY - JOUR
T1 - Design innovation of mesoscale robotic swarms: applications to cooperative urban sensing and mapping
A1 - Audelia G. Dharmawan
A1 - Gim Song Soh
A1 - Shaohui Foong
A1 - Roland Bouffanais
A1 - Kristin L. Wood
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 20
IS - 12
SP - 1618
EP - 1631
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.1900384


Abstract: 
Development of mesoscale robots is gaining interest in security and surveillance domains due to their stealth and portable nature in achieving tasks. Their design and development require a host of hardware, controls, and behavioral innovations to yield fast, energy-efficient, distributed, adaptive, robust, and scalable systems. We extensively describe one such design and development process by: (1) the genealogy of our embedded platforms; (2) the key system architecture and functional layout; (3) the developed and implemented design principles for mesoscale robotic systems; (4) the various key algorithms developed for effective collective operations of mesoscale robotic swarms, with applications to urban sensing and mapping. This study includes our perception of the embedded hardware requirements for reliable operations of mesoscale robotic swarms and our description of the key innovations made in magnetic sensing, indoor localization, central pattern generator control, and distributed autonomy. Although some elements of the design process of such a complex robotic system are inevitably ad-hoc, we focus on the system-of-systems design process and the component design integration. This system-of-systems process provides a basis for developing future systems in the field, and the designs represent the state-of-the-art development that may be benchmarked against and adapted to other applications.

中尺度机器人群集设计创新:合作式城市传感和测绘场景下的应用

摘要:由于中尺度机器人具有隐蔽性、便携性等特点,安全与监测领域的中尺度机器人研发越来越受到重视。为实现快速、节能、分布式、自适应、具有鲁棒性和可伸缩的系统,中尺度机器人设计和开发需大量硬件、控制和行为创新。本文从4方面详述其设计和开发过程:(1)嵌入式平台的系谱学;(2)关键系统架构和功能布局;(3)研发和实施中尺度机器人系统的设计原则;(4)为中尺度机器人族群有效集体运作而开发的各种关键算法,及在城市传感和测绘领域的应用。这需要我们对可靠运行的嵌入式硬件需求具有清晰认知,以及在磁感、室内定位、中央模式发生器控制和中尺度器人群体分布式自治方面作出关键创新。虽然在复杂机器人系统设计过程中不可避免采用一些临时方法,但本文主要关注成体系系统的设计过程以及组件设计集成。成体系系统的设计过程为该领域未来系统的开发提供了基础。本文所介绍的设计代表最新发展趋势,可作为其他应用的基准,并推广到其他领域。

关键词:成体系系统设计;中尺度机器人;群集;城市传感

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Ajay VA, Suherlan AP, Soh GS, et al., 2015. Localization and trajectory tracking of an autonomous spherical rolling robot using IMU and odometry. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V05AT08A058.

[2]Altshuller GS, 1984. Creativity as an Exact Science: the Theory of the Solution of Inventive Problems. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, USA.

[3]Blank S, 2013. Why the lean start-up changes everything. Harv Bus Rev, 91(5):63-72.

[4]Bouffanais R, 2016. Design and Control of Swarm Dynamics. Springer, Singapore.

[5]Camburn BA, Wood K, 2018. Principles of maker and DIY fabrication: enabling design prototypes at low cost. Des Stud, 58:63-88.

[6]Camburn BA, Sng KH, Perez KB, et al., 2015. The way makers prototype: principles of DIY design. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V007T06A004.

[7]Camburn BA, Auernhammer JM, Sng KHE, et al., 2017a. Design innovation: a study of integrated practice. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V007T06A031.

[8]Camburn BA, Viswanathan V, Linsey J, et al., 2017b. Design prototyping methods: state of the art in strategies, techniques, and guidelines. Des Sci, 3:e13.

[9]Chamanbaz M, Mateo D, Zoss BM, et al., 2017. Swarm-enabling technology for multi-robot systems. Front Robot AI, 4:12.

[10]Cho U, Wood KL, Crawford RH, 1998. Online functional testing with rapid prototypes: a novel empirical similarity method. Rap Protot J, 4(3):128-138.

[11]Chowdhury AR, Soh G, Foong SH, et al., 2017a. Experiments in second order sliding mode control of a CPG based spherical robot. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 50(1):2365-2372.

[12]Chowdhury AR, Soh GS, Foong SH, et al., 2017b. Implementing caterpillar inspired roll control of a spherical robot. IEEE Int Conf on Robotics and Automation, p.4167-4174.

[13]Chowdhury AR, Soh GS, Foong SH, et al., 2018a. Experiments in robust path following control of a rolling and spinning robot on outdoor surfaces. Robot Auton Syst, 106:140-151.

[14]Chowdhury AR, Soh GS, Foong SH, et al., 2018b. Implementation of caterpillar inspired rolling gait and nonlinear control strategy in a spherical robot. J Bion Eng, 15(2):313-328.

[15]Dharmawan AG, Hariri HH, Foong SH, et al., 2017. Steerable miniature legged robot driven by a single piezoelectric bending unimorph actuator. IEEE Int Conf on Robotics and Automation, p.6008-6013.

[16]Dharmawan AG, Xavier P, Anderson D, et al., 2018a. A bio-inspired miniature climbing robot with bilayer dry adhesives: design, modeling, and experimentation. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V05BT07A036.

[17]Dharmawan AG, Hariri HH, Soh GS, et al., 2018b. Design, analysis, and characterization of a two-legged miniature robot with piezoelectric-driven four-bar linkage. J Mech Robot, 10(2):021003.

[18]Dharmawan AG, Xavier P, Hariri HH, et al., 2019a. Design, modeling, and experimentation of a bio-inspired miniature climbing robot with bilayer dry adhesives. J Mech Robot, 11(2):020902.

[19]Dharmawan AG, Koh DC, Soh GS, et al., 2019b. Tail design of a miniature two-wheg climbing robot for external transitioning. IFToMM World Congress on Mechanism and Machine Science, p.2139-2148.

[20]Dutson AJ, Wood KL, 2005. Using rapid prototypes for functional evaluation of evolutionary product designs. Rap Protot J, 11(3):125-131.

[21]Fu KK, Yang MC, Wood KL, 2015. Design principles: the foundation of design. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V007T06A034.

[22]Fu KK, Yang MC, Wood KL, 2016. Design principles: literature review, analysis, and future directions. J Mech Des, 138(10):101103.

[23]Goh ACA, Ahmed A, Soh GS, et al., 2019. Barometer assisted GPS denied trilateration algorithm for traversing vertical three-dimensional spaces. Proc ION Pacific PNT Meeting, p.171-184.

[24]Hariri HH, Koh DC, Lim HC, et al., 2018. Orion-II: a miniature climbing robot with bilayer compliant tape for autonomous intelligent surveillance and reconnaissance. $15^ rm {th}$ Int Conf on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, p.1621-1626.

[25]Keese DA, Tilstra AH, Seepersad CC, et al., 2007. Empirically-derived principles for designing products with flexibility for future evolution. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, p.483-498.

[26]Kit JL, Mateo D, Bouffanais R, 2018. A decentralized mobile computing network for multi-robot systems operations. 9th IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics & Mobile Communication Conf, p.309-314.

[27]Kit JL, Dharmawan AG, Mateo D, et al., 2019. Decentralized multi-floor exploration by a swarm of miniature robots teaming with wall-climbing units. Int Symp on Multi-robot and Multi-agent Systems, p.195-201.

[28]Koh DC, Dharmawan AG, Hariri HH, et al., 2019. Design and analysis of a miniature two-wheg climbing robot with robust internal and external transitioning capabilities. IEEE Int Conf on Robotics and Automation, p.9740-9746.

[29]Lauff C, Kotys-Schwartz D, Rentschler ME, 2017. What is a prototype?: emergent roles of prototypes from empirical work in three diverse companies. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V007T06A033.

[30]Lauff CA, Kotys-Schwartz D, Rentschler ME, 2018. What is a prototype? What are the roles of prototypes in companies? J Mech Des, 140(6):061102.

[31]Luo J, Song B, Blessing L, et al., 2018. Design opportunity conception using the total technology space map. AI EDAM, 32(S4):449-461.

[32]Luo JX, Wood KL, 2017. The growing complexity in invention process. Res Eng Des, 28(4):421-435.

[33]Luo JX, Yan BW, Wood K, 2017. InnoGPS for data-driven exploration of design opportunities and directions: the case of Google driverless car project. J Mech Des, 139(11):111416.

[34]Mateo D, Horsevad N, Hassani V, et al., 2019. Optimal network topology for responsive collective behavior. Sci Adv, 5(4):eaau0999.

[35]Moe R, Jensen DD, Wood KL, 2004. Prototype partitioning based on requirement flexibility. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, p.65-77.

[36]Nguyen VD, Soh GS, Foong SH, et al., 2018. Localization of a miniature spherical rolling robot using IMU, odometry and UWB. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, Article V05AT07A070.

[37]Niu X, Suherlan AP, Soh GS, et al., 2014. Mechanical development and control of a miniature nonholonomic spherical rolling robot. 13th Int Conf on Control Automation Robotics & Vision, p.1923-1928.

[38]Perez B, Hilburn S, Jensen D, et al., 2019. Design principle-based stimuli for improving creativity during ideation. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci, 233(2):493-503.

[39]Perez KB, 2018. Design innovation with additive manufacturing (AM): an AM-centric design innovation process. PhD Thesis, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore.

[40]Perez KB, Anderson DS, Wood KL, 2015. Crowdsourced design principles for leveraging the capabilities of additive manufacturing. Int Conf on Engineerring Design, p.1-10.

[41]Qureshi A, Murphy JT, Kuchinsky B, et al., 2006. Principles of product flexibility. ASME Int Design Engineering Technical Conf and Computers and Information in Engineering Conf, p.295-325.

[42]Ries E, 2011. The Lean Startup: How Today‘s Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses. Crown Publishing Group, New York, USA.

[43]Rubenstein M, Cornejo A, Nagpal R, 2014. Programmable self-assembly in a thousand-robot swarm. Science, 345(6198):795-799.

[44]Sekunda A, Komareji M, Bouffanais R, 2016. Interplay between signaling network design and swarm dynamics. Netw Sci, 4(2):244-265.

[45]Singh V, Skiles SM, Krager JE, et al., 2009. Innovations in design through transformation: a fundamental study of transformation principles. J Mech Des, 131(8):081010.

[46]Sng KHE, Raviselvam S, Anderson D, et al., 2017. A design case study: transferring design processes and prototyping principles into industry for rapid response and user impact. Proc $21^ rm {st}$ Int Conf on Engineering Design, p.349-358.

[47]Stone RB, Wood KL, Crawford RH, 2000. A heuristic method for identifying modules for product architectures. Des Stud, 21(1):5-31.

[48]Sundram J, Nguyen VD, Soh GS, et al., 2018. Development of a miniature robot for multi-robot occupancy grid mapping. 3rd Int Conf on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics, p.414-419.

[49]Tilstra AH, Backlund PB, Seepersad CC, et al., 2015. Principles for designing products with flexibility for future evolution. Int J Mass Custom, 5(1):22-54.

[50]Vallegra F, Mateo D, Tokić G, et al., 2018. Gradual collective upgrade of a swarm of autonomous buoys for dynamic ocean monitoring. OCEANS MTS/IEEE Charleston, p.1-7.

[51]Venkataraman S, Song B, Luo J, et al., 2017. Investigating effects of stimuli on ideation outcomes. Proc 21st Int Conf on Engineering Design, p.309-318.

[52]Weaver J, Wood K, Crawford R, et al., 2010. Transformation design theory: a meta-analogical framework. J Comput Inform Sci Eng, 10(3):031012.

[53]Wu F, Maréchal L, Vibhute A, et al., 2016. A compact magnetic directional proximity sensor for spherical robots. IEEE Int Conf on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, p.1258-1264.

[54]Wu F, Vibhute A, Soh GS, et al., 2017. A compact magnetic field-based obstacle detection and avoidance system for miniature spherical robots. Sensors, 17(6):1231.

[55]Zoss BM, Mateo D, Kuan YK, et al., 2018. Distributed system of autonomous buoys for scalable deployment and monitoring of large waterbodies. Auton Robot, 42(8):1669-1689.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE