Full Text:   <2260>

CLC number: TP309

On-line Access: 2008-03-13

Received: 2007-09-17

Revision Accepted: 2008-01-16

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 5

Clicked: 4386

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2008 Vol.9 No.4 P.517~523


Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm

Author(s):  Ning CHEN, Jie ZHU

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Corresponding email(s):   chenning_750210@163.com

Key Words:  Multipurpose audio watermarking, Copyright protection, Content authentication

Ning CHEN, Jie ZHU. Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2008, 9(4): 517~523.

@article{title="Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm",
author="Ning CHEN, Jie ZHU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm
%A Ning CHEN
%A Jie ZHU
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 9
%N 4
%P 517~523
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2008
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A071493

T1 - Multipurpose audio watermarking algorithm
A1 - Ning CHEN
A1 - Jie ZHU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 9
IS - 4
SP - 517
EP - 523
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2008
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A071493

To make audio watermarking accomplish both copyright protection and content authentication with localization, a novel multipurpose audio watermarking scheme is proposed in this paper. The zero-watermarking idea is introduced into the design of robust watermarking algorithm to ensure the transparency and to avoid the interference between the robust watermark and the semi-fragile watermark. The property of natural audio that the VQ indices of DWT-DCT coefficients among neighboring frames tend to be very similar is utilized to extract essential feature from the host audio, which is then used for watermark extraction. And, the chaotic mapping based semi-fragile watermark is embedded in the detail wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous mixing model of the independent component analysis (ICA) system. Both the robust and semi-fragile watermarks can be extracted blindly and the semi-fragile watermarking algorithm can localize the tampering accurately. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of transparency, security, robustness and tampering localization ability.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Cao, H.Q., Xiang, H., Li, X.T., Liu, M., Yi, S., Wei, F., 2006. A Zero-Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and Chaotic Modulation. Proc. SPIE, 6247:624716-1-624716-9.

[2] Ding, X.Y., 2006. Study on the Digital Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Blind Source Separation. MS Thesis, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, p.26-35 (in Chinese).

[3] Gersho, A., Gray, R.M., 1992. Vector Quantization and Signal Compression. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

[4] Hyvarinen, A., 1999. Fast and robust fixed-point algorithms for independent component analysis. IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, 10(3):626-634.

[5] Ji, Z., Xiao, W.W., Wang, J.H., Zhang, J.H., 2003. A multiple watermarking algorithm for digital image based on chaotic sequences. Chin. J. Computers, 26(11):1555-1561 (in Chinese).

[6] Li, J., Liu, F.L., 2007. Double Zero-Watermarks Scheme Utilizing Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Logpolar Mapping. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, p.2118-2121.

[7] Lu, C.S., Mark Liao, H.Y., Chen, L.H., 2000. Multipurpose Audio Watermarking. Proc. 15th Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, p.282-285.

[8] Lu, Z.M., Xu, D.G., Sun, S.H., 2005. Multipurpose image watermarking algorithm based on multistage vector quantization. IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 14(6):822-831.

[9] Lu, Z.M., Zheng, W.M., Pan, J.S., Sun, Z., 2006. Multipurpose image watermarking method based on mean-removed vector quantization. J. Inf. Assur. Secur., 1(1):33-42.

[10] Ma, X.H., Liang, Z.J., Yin, F.L., 2006. A Digital Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on Independent Component Analysis and Singular Value Decomposition. Proc. Fifth Int. Conf. on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, p.2434-2438.

[11] Mintzer, F., Braudaway, G.W., 1999. If One Watermark Is Good, Are More Better? Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 4:2067-2069.

[12] Sang, J., Liao, X.F., Alam, M.S., 2006. Neural-network-based zero-watermark scheme for digital images. Opt. Eng., 45(9):097006-1-097006-9.

[13] Wang, R.D., Xu, D.W., Li, Q., 2005. Multiple Audio Watermarks Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, p.1959-1964.

[14] Wang, X.Y., Zhao, H., 2006. A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on DWT and DCT. IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, 54(12):4835-4840.

[15] Wang, X.Y., Cui, Y.R., Yang, H.Y., Zhao, H., 2004. A New Content-based Digital Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection. Proc. Third Int. Conf. on Information Security, 85:62-68.

[16] Xiong, S.H., Zhou, J.L., He, K., Lang, F.N., 2006. A Multipurpose Image Watermarking Method Based on Adaptive Quantization of Wavelet Coefficients. Proc. First Int. Multi-Symp. on Computer and Computational Sciences, 1:294-297.

[17] Yuan, J., Cui, G.H., Zhang, Y.J., 2006. A Practical Multipurpose Color Image Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection and Image Authentication. Proc. Int. Conf. on Digital Telecommunications, p.72-75.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE