Full Text:   <3194>

CLC number: TP309.2

On-line Access: 

Received: 2007-09-24

Revision Accepted: 2008-03-07

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 0

Clicked: 4854

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2008 Vol.9 No.6 P.737-743


Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing

Author(s):  Chang-da WANG, Shi-guang JU

Affiliation(s):  School of Computer Science and Telecommunications Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   changda@ujs.edu.cn

Key Words:  Multilevel security, Covert channel, Covert channel auditing

Chang-da WANG, Shi-guang JU. Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2008, 9(6): 737-743.

@article{title="Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing",
author="Chang-da WANG, Shi-guang JU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing
%A Chang-da WANG
%A Shi-guang JU
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 9
%N 6
%P 737-743
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2008
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A071510

T1 - Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing
A1 - Chang-da WANG
A1 - Shi-guang JU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 9
IS - 6
SP - 737
EP - 743
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2008
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A071510

A new concept, the security level difference of a covert channel, is presented, which means the security level span from the sender to the receiver of the covert channel. Based on this, the integrated criteria for covert channel auditing are given. Whereas TCSEC (Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria) or CC (Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation) only use the bandwidth to evaluate the threat of covert channels, our new criteria integrate the security level difference, the bandwidth sensitive parameter, bandwidth, duration and instantaneous time of covert channels, so as to give a comprehensive evaluation of the threat of covert channels in a multilevel security system.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Beauquier, D., Lanotte, R., 2007. Hiding information in multi level security systems. LNCS, 4691:250-269.

[2] Costich, O., Moskowitz, I., 1991. Analysis of a Storage Channel in the Two Phase Commit Protocol. Proc. Computer Security Foundations Workshop IV, p.201-208.

[3] DoD STD-5200.28, 1985. Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. National Computer Security Center, USA.

[4] Fisk, G., Fisk, M., Papadopoulos, C., Neil, J., 2002. Eliminating steganography in Internet traffic with active wardens. LNCS, 2578:18-35.

[5] Huskamp, J.C., 1978. Covert Communication Channels in Timesharing Systems. Technical Report UCB-CS-78-02.

[6] ISO CCIMB-99-033, 1999. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Part 3: Security Assurance, Requirements. Version 2.1.

[7] Jajodia, S., Kogan, B., 1990. Transaction Processing in Multilevel-Secure Databases using Replicated Architecture. Proc. Symp. on Research in Security and Privacy, p.360-368.

[8] Lampson, B.W., 1973. A note on the confinement problem. Commun. ACM, 16(10):613-615.

[9] Lipner, S.B., 1975. A comment on the confinement problem. ACM SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev., 9(5):192-196.

[10] Liu, W.Q., Han, N.P., Chen, Z., 2007. Identifying and dealing with covert channel of the secure OS-SLinux. J. Electr., 35(1):153-156 (in Chinese).

[11] Matt, B., 2003. Computer Security: Art and Science. Pearson Education, Inc.

[12] Millen, J., 1993. Covert Channel Capacity. Proc. IEEE Symp. on Research in Security and Privacy, p.60-65.

[13] Millen, J., 1999. 20 Years of Covert Channel Modeling and Analysis. Proc. IEEE Symp. on Security and Privacy, p.113-114.

[14] Murdoch, S.J., Lewis, S., 2006. Embedding covert channels into TCP/IP. LNCS, 3727:247-261.

[15] Qing, S.H., Shen, C.X., 2007. Design of secure operating systems with high security levels. Sci. China Ser. FInf. Sci., 50(3):399-418.

[16] Shieh, S.P., 1999. Estimating and measuring covert channel bandwidth in multilevel secure operating systems. J. Inf. Sci. Eng., 15:91-106.

[17] Simmons, G.J., 1998. Results concerning the bandwidth of subliminal channels. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 16(4):463-473.

[18] Son, S.H., Mukkamala, R., David, R., 2000. Integrating security and real-time requirements using covert channel capacity. IEEE Trans. on Knowl. Data Eng., 12(6):865-879.

[19] Tsai, C.R., Gligor, V.D., 1988. A Bandwidth Computation Model for Covert Storage Channels and Its Applications. Proc. IEEE Symp. on Security and Privacy, p.108-121.

[20] Venkatraman, B.R., Newman-Wolfe, R.E., 1995. Capacity Estimation and Auditability of Network Covert Channels. Proc. IEEE Symp. on Security and Privacy, p.186-198.

[21] Wang, C.D., Ju, S.G., 2004. Searching Covert Channels by Identifying Malicious Subjects in the Time Domain. Proc. 5th IEEE Information Assurance Workshop, p.68-73.

[22] Wang, C.D., Ju, S.G., 2006. Simulation analysis of covert channels. J. Syst. Simul., 18(6):1488-1492 (in Chinese).

[23] Wang, C.D., Ju, S.G., Guo, D.C., Yang, Z., Zheng, W.Y., 2003. Research on the methods of search and elimination in covert channels. LNCS, 3032:988-991.

[24] Wang, Z.H., Deng, J., Lee, R.B., 2007. Mutual Anonymous Communications: A New Covert Channel Based on Splitting Tree MAC. Proc. 26th IEEE INFOCOM, p.2531-2535.

[25] Zander, S., Armitage, G., Branch, P., 2007a. An Empirical Evaluation of IP Time to Live Covert Channels. Proc. 15th IEEE Int. Conf. on Networks, p.42-47.

[26] Zander, S., Armitage, G., Branch, P., 2007b. A survey of covert channels and countermeasures in computer network protocols. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor., 9(3):44-57.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE