Full Text:   <2313>

CLC number: TB69

On-line Access: 2010-01-01

Received: 2009-02-10

Revision Accepted: 2009-05-18

Crosschecked: 2009-11-09

Cited: 3

Clicked: 3850

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2010 Vol.11 No.2 P.128-131


Experimental study on a cryosurgery apparatus

Author(s):  Shao-zhi ZHANG, Dong-bo WU, Ge YANG, Guang-ming CHEN

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   gmchen@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Cryosurgery, Cryoprobe, Auto-cascade refrigeration system, Refrigerant mixture

Shao-zhi ZHANG, Dong-bo WU, Ge YANG, Guang-ming CHEN. Experimental study on a cryosurgery apparatus[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2010, 11(2): 128-131.

@article{title="Experimental study on a cryosurgery apparatus",
author="Shao-zhi ZHANG, Dong-bo WU, Ge YANG, Guang-ming CHEN",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Experimental study on a cryosurgery apparatus
%A Shao-zhi ZHANG
%A Dong-bo WU
%A Guang-ming CHEN
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 11
%N 2
%P 128-131
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2010
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A0900071

T1 - Experimental study on a cryosurgery apparatus
A1 - Shao-zhi ZHANG
A1 - Dong-bo WU
A1 - Ge YANG
A1 - Guang-ming CHEN
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 11
IS - 2
SP - 128
EP - 131
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2010
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A0900071

cryosurgery is an effective way of curing many diseases including tumors and cancers. It can be applied using a variety of systems and cryogens. Cheap, convenient, reliable equipment still needs to be developed so that cryotherapy may be accepted by surgeons and hospitals. This paper presents a cryosurgery apparatus that utilizes an auto-cascade refrigeration system. refrigerant mixture R50/R23/R600a was selected as the working fluid. The mixture composition was altered to achieve lower temperatures and higher capacity. The lowest temperature at the cryoprobe could be as low as −100 °C, and 8 W refrigeration capacity could be obtained at −80 °C. An ice ball of 11.6 mm diameter could be formed when the cryoprobe was immersed in a water bath at 37 °C.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Cao, D., Wang, Q., Chen, G.M., 2003. A new auto-cascade refrigerating cycle. Cryogenics, 5:49-55 (in Chinese).

[2] Coleman, R.B., Richardson, R.N., 2005. A novel closed cycle cryosurgical system. International Journal of Refrigeration, 28(3):412-418.

[3] Davol, P.E., Fulmer, B.R., Rukstalis, D.B., 2006. Long-term results of cryoablation for renal cancer and complex renal masses. Urology, 68(1):2-6.

[4] Fredrickson, K., Nellis, G., Klein, S., 2006. A design method for mixed gas Joule-Thomson refrigeration cryosurgical probes. International Journal of Refrigeration, 29(5):700-715.

[5] Gage, A.A., Baust, J., 1998. Mechanisms of tissue injury in cryosurgery. Cryobiology, 37(3):171-186.

[6] Gage, A.A., Baust, J.G., 2002. Cryosurgery—A review of recent advances and current issues. Cryoletters, 23:69-78.

[7] Gong, M.Q., Luo, E.C., Zhou, Y., Shi, L., Wang, J.J., 2000. A new cooling source for cryosurgery—The multicomponent mixed-refrigerant J-T refrigerator. Cryogenics, 2:24-29 (in Chinese).

[8] Gowardhan, B., Thomas, B., Asterling, S., Sheikh, N., Greene, D.R., 2007. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer-experience with third-generation cryosurgery and novel development in the field. European Urology Supplements, 6(8):516-520.

[9] Hinshaw, J.L., Lee, F.T., 2007. Cryoablation for liver cancer. Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 10(1):47-57.

[10] Holman, M.R., Rowland, S.J., 1997. Design and development of a new cryosurgical instrument utilizing the Peltier thermoelectric effect. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 21:106-112.

[11] Klossner, D.P., Robilotto, A.T., Clarke, D.M., van Buskirk, R.G., Baust, J.M., Gage, A.A., Baust, J.G., 2007. Cryosurgical technique: Assessment of the fundamental variables using human prostate cancer model systems. Cryobiology, 55(3):189-199.

[12] Langenhuijsen, J.F., Broers, E.M.P., Vergunst, H., 2009. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer: an update on clinical results of modern cryotechnology. European Urology, 55(1):76-86.

[13] Luo, E.C., Gong, M.Q., Zhou, Y., 2000. A new auto-cascade throttle refrigeration cycle with special cryogenic mixture for achieving the temperature range around 30 K–60 K. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 21(2):142-146 (in Chinese).

[14] Maiwand, M.O., Eyans, J.M., Beeson, J.E., 2004. The application of cryosurgery in the treatment of lung cancer. Cryobiology, 48(1):55-61.

[15] Maiwand, O., Jones, R.G., Chambers, J., Asimakopoulos, G., 2006. Direct cryosurgery for inoperable metastatic disease of the lung. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 81(2):718-721.

[16] Mala, T., 2006. Cryoablation of liver tumors—a review of mechanisms, techniques, and clinical outcome. Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, 15(1):9-17.

[17] Missimer, D.J., 1997. Refrigerant conversion of auto-refrigerating cascade systems. International Journal of Refrigeration, 20(3):201-207.

[18] Naer, V., Rozhentsev, A., 2002. Application of hydrocarbon mixtures in small refrigerating and cryogenic machines. International Journal of Refrigeration, 25(6):836-847.

[19] Pareek, G., Nakada, S.Y., 2005. The current role of cryotherapy for renal and prostate tumors. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations, 23(5):361-366.

[20] Yu, T.H., Liu, J., 2004. Review and evaluation on the latest advancement in cryotherapy. Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation, 28(5):350-356 (in Chinese).

[21] Zhang, S.Y., Wang, Z.S., Zhen, S.Y., 1994. Practical Low Temperature Medicine. Science Press, Beijing, China, p.2-95 (in Chinese).

[22] Zhong, B.Y., Mai, Y., 2000. The comparison of surgical effects on skin disease between pulse tube refrigerator and liquid nitrogen immerging. Journal of Lingnan Skin and Social Disease, 7(1):39-40 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE