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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2010 Vol.11 No.11 P.849-856


HNCO hydrolysis performance in urea-water solution thermohydrolysis process with and without catalysts

Author(s):  Zhen-chao Chen, Wei-juan Yang, Jun-hu Zhou, Hong-kun Lv, Jian-zhong Liu, Ke-fa Cen

Affiliation(s):  State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   yangwj@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Urea-water solution, Sol-gel method, γ, -Al2O3, HNCO hydrolysis

Zhen-chao Chen, Wei-juan Yang, Jun-hu Zhou, Hong-kun Lv, Jian-zhong Liu, Ke-fa Cen. HNCO hydrolysis performance in urea-water solution thermohydrolysis process with and without catalysts[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2010, 11(11): 849-856.

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journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%T HNCO hydrolysis performance in urea-water solution thermohydrolysis process with and without catalysts
%A Zhen-chao Chen
%A Wei-juan Yang
%A Jun-hu Zhou
%A Hong-kun Lv
%A Jian-zhong Liu
%A Ke-fa Cen
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 11
%N 11
%P 849-856
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2010
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A0900798

T1 - HNCO hydrolysis performance in urea-water solution thermohydrolysis process with and without catalysts
A1 - Zhen-chao Chen
A1 - Wei-juan Yang
A1 - Jun-hu Zhou
A1 - Hong-kun Lv
A1 - Jian-zhong Liu
A1 - Ke-fa Cen
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 11
IS - 11
SP - 849
EP - 856
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2010
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
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DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A0900798

The thermolysis of urea-water solution and its product, HNCO hydrolysis is investigated in a dual-reactor system. For the thermal decomposition below about 1073 K, the main products are ammonia (NH3) and isocyanic acid (HNCO) whereas at higher temperatures the oxidation processes take effect and the products include a low concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The gas HNCO is quite stable and a high yield of HNCO is observed. The ratio of NH3 to HNCO increases from approximately 1.2 to 1.7 with the temperature. The chemical analysis shows that H radical is in favor of HNCO hydrolysis by instigating the reaction HNCO+H·→·NH2+CO and high temperature has positive effect on H radical. The hydrolysis of HNCO over an alumina catalyst made using a sol-gel process (designated as γ;-Al2O3) is investigated. The conversion of HNCO is high even at the high space velocities (6×105 h−1) and low temperatures (393–673 K) in the tests with catalysts, which enhances HNCO hydrolysis and raises the ratio of NH3 to HNCO to approximately 100. The pure γ;-Al2O3 shows a better catalytic performance than CuO/γ;-Al2O3. The addition of CuO not only reduces the surface area but also decreases the Lewis acid sites which are recognized to have a positive effect on the catalytic activity. The apparent activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction amounts to about 25 kJ/mol in 393–473 K while 13 kJ/mol over 473 K. The overall hydrolysis reaction rate on catalysts is mainly determined by external and internal mass-transfer limitations.

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