Full Text:   <2549>

CLC number: TU476+.3

On-line Access: 2011-06-27

Received: 2011-01-20

Revision Accepted: 2011-05-20

Crosschecked: 2011-09-07

Cited: 3

Clicked: 3636

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2011 Vol.12 No.10 P.737-746


Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation

Author(s):  Yu-geng Tang

Affiliation(s):  Department of Architecture, Hwa-Hsia Institute of Technology, Taiwan 23568, Taipei

Corresponding email(s):   tang@cc.hwh.edu.tw

Key Words:  Excavation, Random finite element method (RFEM), Uncertainty, Wall deflection

Yu-geng Tang. Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2011, 12(10): 737-746.

@article{title="Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation",
author="Yu-geng Tang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation
%A Yu-geng Tang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 12
%N 10
%P 737-746
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2011
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1100016

T1 - Probability-based method using RFEM for predicting wall deflection caused by excavation
A1 - Yu-geng Tang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 12
IS - 10
SP - 737
EP - 746
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2011
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1100016

This study employs the random finite element method (RFEM) to analyze the wall deflection caused by excavation. The RFEM combined random fields of material properties with the FEM through the Monte Carlo simulation. A well-documented excavation case history is employed to evaluate the influence of uncertainty of analysis parameters. This study shows that RFEM can provide reasonable estimations of the exceedance probability of wall deflection caused by excavation, and has the potential to be a useful tool to account for the uncertainties of material and model parameters in the numerical analysis.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]ACI Committee 318, 1995. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-95) and Commentary (ACI 318R-95). American Concrete Institute (ACI), Farmington Hills, Michigan.

[2]Barry, T.M., 1996. Recommendations on the testing and use of pseudo-random number generators used in Monte Carlo analysis for risk assessment. Risk Analysis, 16(1):93-105.

[3]Box, G.E., Muller, M.E., 1958. A note on the generation of random normal deviates. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 29(2):610-611.

[4]Cheng, T.Y., 1987. Geotechnical Characteristics of Sungshan Formation within Taipei City. MS Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Bnagkok.

[5]Clough, G.W., Mana, A.I., 1976. Lessons Learned in Finite Element Analysis of Temporary Excavation in Soft Clay. Desai, C.S. (Ed.), Numerical Method in Geomechanics, Blacksburg, Virginia, p.496-510.

[6]Duncan, J.M., 2000. Factors of safety and reliability in geotechnical engineering. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 126(4):307-316.

[7]Duncan, J.M., Chang, C.Y., 1970. Nonlinear analysis of stress and strain in soils. Journal of Soil Mechanic Foundation Division, 96(5):1629-1651.

[8]Fenton, G.A., Griffiths, D.V., 2002. Probabilistic foundation settlement on spatially random soil. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 128(5):381-390.

[9]Fenton, G.A., Griffiths, D.V., Wiliams, M.B., 2005. Reliability of traditional retaining wall design. Geotechnique, 55(1):55-62.

[10]Griffiths, D.V., Fenton, G.A., 2001. Bearing capacity of spatially random soil: the undrained clay Prandtl problem revisited. Geotechnique, 4:351-359.

[11]Griffiths, D.V., Fenton, G.A., 2004. Probabilistic slope stability analysis by finite elements. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(5):507-518.

[12]Honjo, M., 2008. Monte Carlo Simulation in Reliability Analysis. Reliability-Based Design in Geotechnical Engineering, Taylor & Francis, London.

[13]Hsiao, E.C.L., Schuster, M., Juang, C.H., Kung, G.T.C., 2008. Reliability analysis and updating of excavation-induced ground surface settlement for building serviceability evaluation. Journal of Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering, 134(10):1448-1458.

[14]Hsieh, P.G., Ou, C.Y., 1997. Use of the modified hyperbolic model in excavation analysis under undrained condition. Geotechnical Engineering Journal, 28(2):123-150.

[15]Kondner, R.L., Zelasko, J.S., 1963. A Hyperbolic Stress Strain Formulation for Sands. Proceeding of 2nd Pan-American Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Brazil, p.289-324.

[16]Kung, G.T.C., 2007. Equipment and testing procedures for small strain triaxial tests. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 30(4):579-591.

[17]Kung, G.T.C., Hsiao, E.C.L., Juang, C.H., 2007a. Evaluation of a simplified small-strain soil model for estimation of excavation-induced movements. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 44(6):726-736.

[18]Kung, G.T.C., Juang, C.H., Hsiao, E.C.L., Hashash, Y.M.A., 2007b. Simplified model for wall deflection and ground-surface settlement caused by braced excavation in clays. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 133(6):731-747.

[19]Kung, G.T.C., Ou, C.Y., Juang, C.H., 2009. Modeling small-strain behaviour of Taipei clays for finite element analysis of braced excavations. Computers and Geotechnics, 36(1-2):304-319.

[20]Moh, Z.C., Chin, C.T., Liu, C.J., Woo, S.M., 1989. Engineering correlations for soil deposits in Taipei. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 12(3):273-283.

[21]Ou, C.Y., Hsieh, P.G., Chiou, D.C., 1993. Characteristics of ground surface settlement during excavation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 30(5):758-767.

[22]Paice, G.M., Griffiths, D.V., Fenton, G.A., 1996. Finite element modeling of settlements on spatially random soil. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122(9):777-779.

[23]Phoon, K.K., Chen, J.R., Kulhawy, F.H., 2006. Characterization of Model Uncertainties for Augered Cast-in-Place (ACIP) Piles under Axial Compression. Proc. Foundation Analysis and Design: Innovative Methods (GSP 153), Shanghai, p.82-89.

[24]Schuster, M., Kung, G.T.C., Juang, C.H., Hashash, Y.M.A., 2009. Simplified model for evaluating damage potential of buildings adjacent to a braced excavation. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135(12):1823-1835.

[25]Son, M., Cording, E.J., 2005. Estimation of building damage due to excavation-induced ground movements. Journal of Geotechnical Geoenvironmental Engineering, 131(2):162-177.

[26]Vaid, Y.P., 1985. Effect of consolidation history and stress path on hyperbolic stress-strain relations. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 22(2):172-176.

[27]Wang, Y., Kulhawy, F.H., 2008. Reliability index for serviceability limit state of building foundations. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 134(11):1587-1594.

[28]Woo, S.M., Moh, Z.C., 1990. Geotechnical Characteristics of Soil in the Taipei Basin. Tenth Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference, Taipei, p.51-65.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE