Full Text:   <2236>

CLC number: X705

On-line Access: 2013-03-04

Received: 2012-10-13

Revision Accepted: 2013-01-16

Crosschecked: 2013-02-22

Cited: 4

Clicked: 3100

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2013 Vol.14 No.3 P.177-186

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1200263


Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate*


Author(s):  Ping Tang1, Yong-chao Zhou2, Zhen-miao Xie1

Affiliation(s):  1. College of Environment and Material Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhoutang@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Tannery sludge, Bottom ash, Heavy metals, Phosphate, Stabilization


Ping Tang, Yong-chao Zhou, Zhen-miao Xie. Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2013, 14(3): 177-186.

@article{title="Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate",
author="Ping Tang, Yong-chao Zhou, Zhen-miao Xie",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="14",
number="3",
pages="177-186",
year="2013",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1200263"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate
%A Ping Tang
%A Yong-chao Zhou
%A Zhen-miao Xie
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 14
%N 3
%P 177-186
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2013
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1200263

TY - JOUR
T1 - Immobilization of heavy metals in sludge using phosphoric acid and monobasic calcium phosphate
A1 - Ping Tang
A1 - Yong-chao Zhou
A1 - Zhen-miao Xie
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 14
IS - 3
SP - 177
EP - 186
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2013
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1200263


Abstract: 
The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of pre-treatment with phosphoric acid (PA) and monobasic calcium phosphate (MCP) for the stabilization of heavy metals in sludge and its bottom ash. The tannery sludge samples were collected in Wenzhou, China and heavily contaminated with heavy metals, such as Pb, Cr and so on. The samples were pre-treated with PA or MCP. Then XRD and TCLP tests were adopted as the evaluating methods to characterize the Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Cd immobilization in the pre-treated sludge and its bottom ash. The results showed that this treatment effectively immobilized Pb and Cd in the sludge, lightly stabilized the metal Cu, and adversely, enhanced the leachability of Zn. After incineration at 900 °C, Pb and Cr in the bottom ash of pre-treated sludge were significantly stabilized due to the formation of their highly thermostable phosphates and pyromorphite-like minerals during the incineration process. However, an increase of Cu and Zn solubility was observed which might be attributable to the acidification of sludge due to the addition of PA or MCP.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

References

[1] Brown, S., Christensen, B., Lombi, E., McLaughlin, M., McGrath, S., Colpaert, J., Vangronsveld, J., 2005. An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ. Environmental Pollution, 138(1):34-45. 


[2] Cao, X., Ma, L.Q., Rhue, D.R., Appel, C.S., 2004. Mechanisms of lead, copper, and zinc retention by phosphate rock. Environmental Pollution, 131(3):435-444. 


[3] Cao, X., Wahbi, A., Ma, L., Li, B., Yang, Y., 2009. Immobilization of Zn, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils using phosphate rock and phosphoric acid. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(2-3):555-564. 


[4] Da Rocha, N.C.C., Decampos, R.C., Rossi, A.M., Moreira, E.L., Barbosa, A.F., Moure, G.T., 2002. Cadmium uptake by hydroxyapatite synthesized in different conditions and submitted to thermal treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(7):1630-1635. 


[5] Eighmy, T.T., Crannell, B.S., Butler, L.G., Cartledge, F.K., Emery, E.F., Oblas, D., Krzanowski, J.E., Eudsen, J.D., Shaw, E.L., Francus, C.A., 1997. Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste combustion dry scrubber residue using soluble phosphate. Environmental Science and Technology, 31(11):3330-3338. 


[6] Jeanjean, J., Vincent, U., Fedoroff, M., 1994. Structural modification of calcium hydroxyapatite induced by sorption of cadmium ions. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 108(1):68-72. 


[7] Karvelas, M., Katsoyiannis, A., Samara, C., 2003. Occurrence and fate of heavy metals in the waste water treatment process. Chemosphere, 53(10):1201-1210. 


[8] Lindsay, W.L., 1979.  Chemical Equilibria in Soils. John Wiley & Sons Inc,New York :329-342. 

[9] Ma, Q.Y., Traina, S.J., Logan, T.J., Ryan, J.A., 1994. Effects of aqueous Al, Cd, Cu, Fe(II), Ni, and Zn on Pb immobilization by hydroxyapatite. Environmental Science and Technology, 28(7):1219-1228. 


[10] Mavropoulos, E., Rossi, A.M., Costa, A.M., Perez, C.A.C., Moreira, J.C., 2002. Studies on the mechanisms of lead immobilization by hydroxyapatite. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(7):1625-1629. 


[11] Mignardi, S., Corami, A., Ferrini, V., 2012. Evaluation of the effectiveness of phosphate treatment for the remediation of mine waste soils contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Chemosphere, 86(4):354-360. 


[12] Nriagu, J.O., 1984. Formation and Stability of Base Metal Phosphates in Soils and Sediment.  Phosphate Minerals. Springer-Verlag,London :318-329. 

[13] Padmi, S.T., Tanaka, M., Aoyama, I., 2009. Chemical stabilization of medical waste fly ash using chelating agent and phosphates: Heavy metals and ecotoxicity evaluation. Waste Management, 29(7):2065-2070. 


[14] Piantone, P., Bodnan, F., Derie, R., Depelsenaire, G., 2003. Monitoring the stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by phosphation: mineralogical and balance approach. Waste Management, 23(3):225-243. 


[15] Qian, G., Chen, W., Lim, T.T., Chui, P., 2009. In-situ stabilization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni in the multi-contaminated sediments with ferrihydrite and apatite composite additives. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170(2-3):1093-1100. 


[16] Quina, M.J., Bordado, ., João, C.M., Quinta-Ferreira, R.M., 2010. Chemical stabilization of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179(1-3):382-392. 


[17] Raicevic, S., Perovic, V., Zouboulis, A.I., 2009. Theoretical assessment of phosphate amendments for stabilization of (Pb+Zn) in polluted soil. Waste Management, 29(5):1779-1784. 


[18] Rio, S., Verwilghen, C., Ramaroson, J., Nzihou, A., Sharrock, P., 2007. Heavy metal vaporization and abatement during thermal treatment of modified wastes. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 148(3):521-528. 


[19] Sun, Y., Zheng, J., Zou, L., Liu, Q., Zhu, P., Qian, G., 2011. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals. Waste Management, 31(2):325-330. 


[20] Tang, X.Y., Zhu, Y.G., Chen, S.B., Tang, L.L., Chen, X.P., 2004. Assessment of the effectiveness of different fertilizers to remediate Pb-contaminated soil using in vitro test. Environment International, 30(4):531-537. 


[21] Tang, P., Zhao, Y.C., Chen, D.Z., Xia, F.Y., 2008. Volatility of heavy metals during incineration of tannery sludge in the presence of chlorides and phosphoric acid. Waste Management & Research, 26(4):369-376. 


[22] Tang, P., Zhao, Y.C., Xia, F.Y., 2008. Thermal behaviors and heavy metal vaporization of phosphatized tannery sludge in incineration process. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20(9):1146-1152. 


[23] Theodoratos, P., Papassiopi, N., Xenidis, A., 2002. Evaluation of monobasic calcium phosphate for the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils from Lavrion. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 94(2):135-146. 


[24] US EPA, 1992.  Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (Method 1311) in SW-846. Office of Solid Waste,Washington DC :

[25] Van de Velden, M., Dewil, R., Baeyens, J., Josson, L., Lanssens, P., 2008. The distribution of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sludge (FBSC). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151(1):96-102. 


[26] Xu, Y., Schwartz, F.W., 1994. Lead immobilization by hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 15(3):187-206. 


[27] Zhang, P., Ryan, J.A., Bryndzia, L.T., 1997. Pyromorphite formation from goethite adsorbed lead. Environmental Science and Technology, 31(9):2673-2678. 



Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE