Full Text:   <2817>

Summary:  <2130>

CLC number: U469.72

On-line Access: 2013-08-01

Received: 2013-03-03

Revision Accepted: 2013-06-24

Crosschecked: 2013-07-28

Cited: 11

Clicked: 6274

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2013 Vol.14 No.8 P.535-553


Energy management strategy for a parallel hybid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybid energy storage system*

Author(s):  Jun-yi Liang, Jian-long Zhang, Xi Zhang, Shi-fei Yuan, Cheng-liang Yin

Affiliation(s):  . National Engineering Laboratory for Automotive Electronic Control Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Corresponding email(s):   zjlong@sjtu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Energy management, Fuel economy, Parallel hybrid electric vehicle, Hybrid energy storage system (HESS), Fuzzy logic

Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Jun-yi Liang, Jian-long Zhang, Xi Zhang, Shi-fei Yuan, Cheng-liang Yin. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2013, 14(8): 535-553.

@article{title="Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system",
author="Jun-yi Liang, Jian-long Zhang, Xi Zhang, Shi-fei Yuan, Cheng-liang Yin",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system
%A Jun-yi Liang
%A Jian-long Zhang
%A Xi Zhang
%A Shi-fei Yuan
%A Cheng-liang Yin
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 14
%N 8
%P 535-553
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2013
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1300068

T1 - Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system
A1 - Jun-yi Liang
A1 - Jian-long Zhang
A1 - Xi Zhang
A1 - Shi-fei Yuan
A1 - Cheng-liang Yin
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 14
IS - 8
SP - 535
EP - 553
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2013
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1300068

To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries, a combination of batteries and ultra-capacitors (UCs) could be a solution. The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs). This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS. An advanced energy management strategy (EMS), mainly based on fuzzy logic, is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS. The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine, battery, and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle. To validate the effectiveness of the EMS, numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out. The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas. The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected. The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91% compared with that in the battery only system. Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Abdelsalam, A.A., Cui, S., 2012. A fuzzy logic global power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles based on a permanent magnet electric variable transmission. Energies, 5(4):1175-1198. 

[2] Allegre, A.L., Bouscayrol, A., Trigui, R., 2009. Influence of Control Strategies on Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for Traction Applications. , Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, IEEE, 213-220. :213-220. 

[3] Baumann, B., Rizzoni, G., Washington, G., 1998. Intelligent Control of Hybrid Vehicles Using Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic. SAE Technical Paper 981061, :

[4] Bizon, N., 2013. Energy efficiency for the multiport power converters architectures of series and parallel hybrid power source type used in plug-in/V2G fuel cell vehicles. Applied Energy, 102(0):726-734. 

[5] ağatay Bayindir, K., Gzkk, M.A., Teke, A., 2011. A comprehensive overview of hybrid electric vehicle: Powertrain configurations, powertrain control techniques and electronic control units. Energy Conversion and Management, 52(2):1305-1313. 

[6] Chan, C.C., 2002. The state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. Proceedings of the IEEE, 90(2):247-275. 

[7] Chen, H., Qiu, X., Zhu, W., Hagenmuller, P., 2002. Synthesis and high rate properties of nanoparticled lithium cobalt oxides as the cathode material for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemistry Communications, 4(6):488-491. 

[8] Ehsani, M., Gao, Y., Emadi, A., 2009. Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, CRC Press,:1-2. 

[9] Erdinc, O., Uzunoglu, M., 2010. Recent trends in PEM fuel cell-powered hybrid systems: Investigation of application areas, design architectures and energy management approaches. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9):2874-2884. 

[10] Jeong, K.S., Lee, W.Y., Kim, C.S., 2005. Energy management strategies of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system using fuzzy logics. Journal of Power Sources, 145(2):319-326. 

[11] Jung, D.Y., Lee, B.H., Kim, S.W., 2002. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications. Journal of Power Sources, 109(1):1-10. 

[12] Karden, E., Ploumen, S., Fricke, B., Miller, T., Snyder, K., 2007. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 168(1):2-11. 

[13] Kisacikoglu, M.C., Uzunoglu, M., Alam, M.S., 2009. Load sharing using fuzzy logic control in a fuel cell/ultracapacitor hybrid vehicle. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34(3):1497-1507. 

[14] Langari, R., Won, J.S., 2005. Intelligent energy management agent for a parallel hybrid vehicle-part I: System architecture and design of the driving situation identification process. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 54(3):925-934. 

[15] Lee, H.D., Sul, S.K., 1998. Fuzzy-logic-based torque control strategy for parallel-type hybrid electric vehicle. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 45(4):625-632. 

[16] Piller, S., Perrin, M., Jossen, A., 2001. Methods for state-of-charge determination and their applications. Journal of Power Sources, 96(1):113-120. 

[17] Rizzoni, G., Guzzella, L., Baumann, B.M., 1999. Unified modeling of hybrid electric vehicle drivetrains. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 4(3):246-257. 

[18] Salmasi, F.R., 2007. Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles: Evolution, classification, comparison, and future trends. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 56(5):2393-2404. 

[19] Schaltz, E., Khaligh, A., Rasmussen, P.O., 2009. Influence of battery/ultracapacitor energy-storage sizing on battery lifetime in a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(8):3882-3891. 

[20] Schouten, N.J., Salman, M.A., Kheir, N.A., 2003. Energy management strategies for parallel hybrid vehicles using fuzzy logic. Control Engineering Practice, 11(2):171-177. 

[21] Serrao, L., Onori, S., Rizzoni, G., 2011. A comparative analysis of energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, 133(3):031012-031019. 

[22] Tanoue, K., Yanagihara, H., Kusumi, H., 2008.  Hybrid is a Key Technology for Future Automobiles Hydrogen Technology. Springer,Berlin Heidelberg :235-272. 

[23] Thounthong, P., Ral, S., Davat, B., 2009. Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid powersource for vehicle applications. Journal of Power Sources, 193(1):376-385. 

[24] Tomaž, K., 2007. Hybridization of powertrain and downsizing of IC engine–a way to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions–part 1. Energy Conversion and Management, 48(5):1411-1423. 

[25] Trovao, J.P., Pereirinha, P.G., Ferreira, F.J.T.E., 2008. Comparative Study of Different Electric Machines in the Powertrain of a Small Electric Vehicle. , 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines, 1-6. :1-6. 

[26] Valerie, H.J., Keith, B.W., David, J.R., 2000. HEV Control Strategy for Real-time Optimization of Fuel Economy and Emissions. SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1543, :

[27] van Mierlo, J., van den Bossche, P., Maggetto, G., 2004. Models of energy sources for EV and HEV: Fuel cells, batteries, ultracapacitors, flywheels and engine-generators. Journal of Power Sources, 128(1):76-89. 

[28] Vasebi, A., Partovibakhsh, M., Bathaee, S.M.T., 2007. A novel combined battery model for state-of-charge estimation in lead-acid batteries based on extended Kalman filter for hybrid electric vehicle applications. Journal of Power Sources, 174(1):30-40. 

[29] Wang, L., Zhang, J.L., Yin, C.L., Zhang, Y., Wu, Z.W., 2011. Realization and analysis of good fuel economy and kinetic performance of a low-cost hybrid electric vehicle. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 24(05):774-789. 

[30] Won, J.S., Langari, R., 2005. Intelligent energy management agent for a parallel hybrid vehicle-part ii: Torque distribution, charge sustenance strategies, and performance results. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 54(3):935-953. 

[31] Wu, Z., Zhang, Z., Yin, C., Zhao, Z., 2012. Design of a soft switching bidirectional DC-DC power converter for ultracapacitor-battery interfaces. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 13(2):325-336. 

[32] Xiong, W., Zhang, Y., Yin, C.L., 2009. Configuration design, energy management and experimental validation of a novel series-parallel hybrid electric transit bus. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A, 10(9):1269-1276. 

[33] Xiong, W., Zhang, Y., Yin, C., 2009. Optimal energy management for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus. Energy Conversion and Management, 50(7):1730-1738. 

[34] Yoo, H., Sui, S.K., Park, Y., Jeong, J., 2008. System integration and power-flow management for a series hybrid electric vehicle using supercapacitors and batteries. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 44(1):108-114. 

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE