Full Text:   <2033>

Summary:  <6>

CLC number: O242.1

On-line Access: 2014-06-04

Received: 2014-03-06

Revision Accepted: 2014-07-09

Crosschecked: 2014-08-22

Cited: 0

Clicked: 4534

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2014 Vol.15 No.9 P.743-752


Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic process*

Author(s):  Xiang Hu, Li Xie, Chuang Mi, Dian-hai Yang

Affiliation(s):  . State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

Corresponding email(s):   sally_xieli@163.com

Key Words:  Activated sludge model, Simulation, Calibration, Validation, Sensitivity analysis

Xiang Hu, Li Xie, Chuang Mi, Dian-hai Yang. Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic process[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2014, 15(9): 743-752.

@article{title="Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic process",
author="Xiang Hu, Li Xie, Chuang Mi, Dian-hai Yang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic process
%A Xiang Hu
%A Li Xie
%A Chuang Mi
%A Dian-hai Yang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 15
%N 9
%P 743-752
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2014
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A14b0066

T1 - Calibration and validation of an activated sludge model for a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic process
A1 - Xiang Hu
A1 - Li Xie
A1 - Chuang Mi
A1 - Dian-hai Yang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 15
IS - 9
SP - 743
EP - 752
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2014
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A14b0066

The aim of this study was to establish an activated sludge model and to verify its predictability for use in a pilot-scale anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/post-anoxic (modified AAO) process. Respirometric measurements were conducted to identify the influent organic characteristics and to determine the yield coefficient (Y H) and decay coefficient (b H) for heterotrophic biomass (OHOs). The values obtained for Y H and b H were 0.72 mg COD/mg COD and 0.275 d−1, respectively. Within the model’s calibration, the most influential stoichiometric and kinetic parameters were identified with the aid of sensitivity analysis. The output of the model was most sensitive to parameters associated with the growth and decay of OHOs and ammonia-oxidizing biomass (AOB) (Y H, μ maxH, K s, b H, μ maxA, K NH4A, and b aeroa,A). Furthermore, all the calibrated parameters, with the exception of Y PAO, aerob related to the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs), could be regarded as influential. Both steady-state and dynamic simulations indicated good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the output variables. The calibrated model can be used to provide insight into the pilot-scale modified AAO process, and information needed to optimize design and operation when applied at full-scale.



Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] APHA, 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th Ed.), Washington DC, USA :

[2] Brun, R., Kuhni, M., Siegrist, H., 2002. Practical identifiability of ASM2d parameters-systematic selection and tuning of parameters subsets. Water Research, 36(16):4113-4127. 

[3] Czerwionka, K., Makinia, J., Kaszubowska, M., 2012. Distillery wastes as external carbon sources for denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Science & Technology, 65(9):1583-1590. 

[4] Fenu, A., Guglielmi, G., Jimenez, J., 2010. Activated sludge model (ASM) based modelling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes: A critical review with special regard to MBR specificities. Water Research, 44(15):4272-4294. 

[5] Fu, G., Dong, B., Zhou, Z.Y., 2004. Design characteristics and operating parameters of inverted AAO process. Water & Wastewater, (in Chinese),20(9):53-55. 

[6] Gernaey, K.V., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Henze, M., 2004. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art. Environmental Modelling & Software, 19(9):763-783. 

[7] Grady, C.P.L., Daigger, G.T., Lim, H.C., 1999.  Biological Wastewater Treatment. Marcel Dekker Inc.,New York :

[8] Henze, M., Gujer, W., Mino, T., 2000. Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d and ASM3.  IWA Science and Technical Report No. 9. IWA Publishing,London :

[9] Hu, Z.R., Houweling, D., Dold, P., 2012. Biological nutrient removal in municipal wastewater treatment: new directions in sustainability. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 138(3):307-317. 

[10] Langergraber, G., Rieger, L., Winkler, S., 2004. A guideline for simulation studies of wastewater treatment plants. Water Science & Technology, 50(7):131-138. 

[11] Liwarska-Bizukojc, E., Biernacki, R., 2010. Identification of the most sensitive parameters in the activated sludge model implemented in BioWin software. Bioresource Technology, 101(19):7278-7285. 

[12] Liwarska-Bizukojc, E., Olejnik, D., Biernacki, R., 2011. Calibration of a complex activated sludge model for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 34(6):659-670. 

[13] Makinia, J., Rosenwinkel, K.H., Swinarski, M., 2006. Experimental and model-based evaluation of the role of denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms at two large scale WWTPs in northern Poland. Water Science & Technology, 54(8):73-81. 

[14] Ni, B.J., Yu, H.Q., 2008. Simulation of heterotrophic storage and growth processes in activated sludge under aerobic conditions. Chemical Engineering Journal, 140(1-3):101-109. 

[15] Ni, B.J., Xie, W.M., Liu, S.G., 2009. Modeling and simulation of the sequencing batch reactor at a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. AIChE Journal, 55(8):2186-2196. 

[16] Pai, T.Y., 2007. Modeling nitrite and nitrate variations in A2O process under different return oxic mixed liquid using an extended model. Process Biochemistry, 42(6):978-987. 

[17] Petersen, B., Gernaey, K., Henze, M., 2002. Evaluation of an ASM1 model calibration procedure on a municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plant. Journal of Hydroinform, 4(1):15-38. 

[18] Petersen, B., Gernaey, K., Henze, M., 2003. Calibration of activated sludge models: a critical review of experimental designs.  Biotechnology for the Environment: Wastewater Treatment and Modelling, Waste Gas Handling. Kluwer Academic Publishers,Dordrecht :

[19] Sin, G., van Hulle, S.W.H., de Pauw, D.J.W., 2005. A critical comparison of systematic calibration protocols for activated sludge models: a SWOT analysis. Water Research, 39(12):2459-2474. 

[20] US EPA, 2009. Guidance on the Development, Evaluation and Application on Environmental Models, EPA 100/K-09-003, Washington DC, USA :

[21] Vanrolleghem, P.A., Insel, G., Petersen, B., 2003. A comprehensive model calibration procedure for activated sludge models. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation. , 76th Annual Technical Exhibition and Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 210-237. :210-237. 

[22] Weijers, S.R., Vanrolleghem, P.A., 1997. A procedure for selecting best identifiable parameters in calibrating activated sludge model No. 1 to full-scale plant data. Water Science & Technology, 36(5):69-79. 

[23] Zhang, B., Gao, T.Y., 2000. Principle and characteristics of reversed A2/O process. Water & Wastewater, (in Chinese),16(7):11-15. 

[24] Zhou, Z., Wu, Z.C., Wang, Z.W., 2009. Fractionation of soluble COD in wastewater based on batch respirometric method. Environmental Science, (in Chinese),30(1):75-79. 

[25] Zhou, Z., Wu, Z.C., Wang, Z.W., 2011. Simulation and performance evaluation of the anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic process for biological nutrient removal. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 28(5):1233-1240. 

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE