Full Text:   <221>

Summary:  <73>

CLC number: TH161.12

On-line Access: 2019-05-06

Received: 2018-10-08

Revision Accepted: 2019-04-03

Crosschecked: 2019-04-15

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2059

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Jiao-yuan Lian

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1769-5641

Zhong-bin Xu

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7225-8420

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2019 Vol.20 No.5 P.311-333

10.1631/jzus.A1800565


Analysis and control of cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: a review


Author(s):  Jiao-yuan Lian, Zhong-bin Xu, Xiao-dong Ruan

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Process Equipment, College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   xuzhongbin@zju.edu.cn, xdruan@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), Cured deformation, Finite element analysis (FEA), Process modeling, Control methods


Share this article to: More |Next Article >>>

Jiao-yuan Lian, Zhong-bin Xu, Xiao-dong Ruan. Analysis and control of cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2019, 20(1): 311-333.

@article{title="Analysis and control of cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: a review",
author="Jiao-yuan Lian, Zhong-bin Xu, Xiao-dong Ruan",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="20",
number="5",
pages="311-333",
year="2019",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1800565"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Analysis and control of cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: a review
%A Jiao-yuan Lian
%A Zhong-bin Xu
%A Xiao-dong Ruan
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 20
%N 5
%P 311-333
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer

TY - JOUR
T1 - Analysis and control of cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites: a review
A1 - Jiao-yuan Lian
A1 - Zhong-bin Xu
A1 - Xiao-dong Ruan
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 20
IS - 5
SP - 311
EP - 333
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -


Abstract: 
Fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites are of great significance in aerospace, marine, automotive, wind power, and civil engineering fields. They have outstanding advantages and can reduce weight and enhance performance, especially by replacing steel pieces. However, nonreversible cured deformation is an obstacle to the rapid development of these composite components. Studies in this field typically focus on the numerical prediction of the effects of cured deformation on composite components, which helps engineers design and modify the mold to compensate for deformation. In this review we discuss the latest achievements relating to cured deformation mechanisms, prediction models, and control strategies in fiber-reinforced material fields. In particular, different intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect cured deformation are summarized and five main control strategies are proposed: die surface compensation, process optimization, structural optimization, tool-part contact optimization, and development of other methods. In addition, the effects of these factors on controlling deformation are compared. Unlike previous studies, this study integrates control strategies and the main mechanisms involved to achieve a more comprehensive view of cured deformation in thermosetting composites.

This review paper summarizes the latest studies related to the cured deformation of fiber-reinforced thermosetting composites. It is very helpful and well organized.

纤维增强复合材料固化变形的研究与控制综述

目的:固化变形问题是纤维增强复合材料结构件固化成形及应用过程中的一大阻碍.本文旨在综述引起固化变形的原因和机理,归纳和评价固化变形的控制方法,以及指出目前存在的问题与不足.
方法:1. 通过对国内外文献的大量阅读与分析,得到固化变形问题的产生机理及近年来的研究进展; 2. 通过对该领域论文的分类和归纳,总结出固化变形的主要控制策略,并分类讨论每项策略的控制措施.
结论:1. 固化变形的产生机理主要有热变形、化学收缩变形和模具作用3种. 2. 本文归纳了固化变形的五类控制方法:模具补偿、固化工艺优化、结构件优化设计、模具接触面优化以及开发新方法. 3. 针对各控制策略的优点,本文分析和总结了它们的适用场合以及控制效果. 4. 在固化变形的研究方面,目前仍然存在许多问题与不足.

关键词:纤维增强复合材料;固化变形;有限元分析;过程模拟;控制策略

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Adolf DB, Chambers RS, 2007. A thermodynamically consistent, nonlinear viscoelastic approach for modeling thermosets during cure. Journal of Rheology, 51(1):23-50.

[2]Albert C, Fernlund G, 2002. Spring-in and warpage of angled composite laminates. Composites Science and Technology, 62(14):1895-1912.

[3]Arafath ARA, Vaziri R, Poursartip A, 2008. Closed-form solution for process-induced stresses and deformation of a composite part cured on a solid tool: Part I–flat geometries. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 39(7):1106-1117.

[4]Arafath ARA, Vaziri R, Poursartip A, 2009. Closed-form solution for process-induced stresses and deformation of a composite part cured on a solid tool: Part II–curved geometries. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 40(10):1545-1557.

[5]Bai X, Li N, 2012. The application of carbon fiber composite material for sports equipment. Advanced Materials Research, 496:480-483.

[6]Balvers J, Bersee H, Beukers A, et al., 2008. Determination of cure dependent properties for curing simulation of thick-walled composites. 49th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/ AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 16th AIAA/ASME/AHS Adaptive Structures Conference, 10th AIAA Non-Deterministic Approaches Conference, 9th AIAA Gossamer Spacecraft Forum, 4th AIAA Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Specialists Conference.

[7]Bapanapalli SK, Smith LV, 2005. A linear finite element model to predict processing-induced distortion in FRP laminates. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 36(12):1666-1674.

[8]Baran I, Çınar K, Ersoy N, et al., 2017. A review on the mechanical modeling of composite manufacturing processes. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 24(2):365-395.

[9]Barrera D, Roig I, Sales S, et al., 2014. Monitoring of reinforced composites processed by microwave radiation using fiber-bragg gratings. Proceedings of SPIE 9141, Optical Sensing and Detection III, No. 91410Z.

[10]Barthel H, Dreyer M, Gottschalk-Gaudig T, et al., 2002. Fumed silica—rheological additive for adhesives, resins, and paints. Macromolecular Symposia, 187(1):573-584.

[11]Behzad T, Sain M, 2007. Finite element modeling of polymer curing in natural fiber reinforced composites. Composites Science and Technology, 67(7-8):1666-1673.

[12]Bellini C, Sorrentino L, 2018. Analysis of cure induced deformation of CFRP U-shaped laminates. Composite Structures, 197:1-9.

[13]Bellini C, Sorrentino L, Polini W, et al., 2017. Spring-in analysis of CFRP thin laminates: numerical and experimental results. Composite Structures, 173:17-24.

[14]Bogetti TA, Gillespie Jr JW, 1992. Process-induced stress and deformation in thick-section thermoset composite laminates. Journal of Composite Materials, 26(5):626-660.

[15]Chen WJ, Zhang DY, 2018. A multi-physics processing model for predicting spring-in angle of a resin transfer molded composite flange. Proceedings of 2018 AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference.

[16]Cheung A, Yu Y, Pochiraju K, 2004. Three-dimensional finite element simulation of curing of polymer composites. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 40(8):895-912.

[17]Chou TW, Gao LM, Thostenson ET, et al., 2010. An assessment of the science and technology of carbon nanotube-based fibers and composites. Composites Science and Technology, 70(1):1-19.

[18]Çınar K, Ersoy N, 2015. Effect of fibre wrinkling to the spring-in behaviour of L-shaped composite materials. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 69:105-114.

[19]Çınar K, Ersoy N, 2016. 3D finite element model for predicting manufacturing distortions of composite parts. Journal of Composite Materials, 50(27):3791-3807.

[20]Çınar K, Öztürk UE, Ersoy N, et al., 2014. Modelling manufacturing deformations in corner sections made of composite materials. Journal of Composite Materials, 48(7):799-813.

[21]Clifford S, Jansson N, Yu W, et al., 2006. Thermoviscoelastic anisotropic analysis of process induced residual stresses and dimensional stability in real polymer matrix composite components. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 37(4):538-545.

[22]Costa VAF, Sousa ACM, 2003. Modeling of flow and thermo-kinetics during the cure of thick laminated composites. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 42(1):15-22.

[23]Cox SB, Tate LNC, Danley SE, et al., 2013. Stress free temperature testing and calculations on out-of-autoclave composites. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. No. KSC-2013-038R.

[24]Daugevičius M, Valivonis J, Marčiukaitis G, 2012. Deflection analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer under long-term load action. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 13(8):571-583.

[25]Ding AX, Li SX, Sun JX, et al., 2016a. A comparison of process-induced residual stresses and distortions in composite structures with different constitutive laws. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 35(10):807-823.

[26]Ding AX, Li SX, Wang JH, et al., 2016b. Prediction of process-induced distortions in L-shaped composite profiles using path-dependent constitutive law. Applied Composite Materials, 23(5):1027-1045.

[27]Ding AX, Li SX, Sun JX, et al., 2016c. A thermo-viscoelastic model of process-induced residual stresses in composite structures with considering thermal dependence. Composite Structures, 136:34-43.

[28]Ding AX, Li SX, Wang JH, et al., 2017a. A new analytical solution for spring-in of curved composite parts. Composites Science and Technology, 142:30-40.

[29]Ding AX, Li SX, Wang JH, et al., 2017b. A new path-dependent constitutive model predicting cure-induced distortions in composite structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 95:183-196.

[30]Dong CS, 2009a. Modeling the dimensional variations of composites using effective coefficients of thermal expansion. Journal of Composite Materials, 43(22):2639-2652.

[31]Dong CS, 2009b. Modeling the process-induced dimensional variations of general curved composite components and assemblies. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 40(8):1210-1216.

[32]Dong CS, 2010. A parametric study on the process-induced deformation of composite T-stiffener structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(4):515-520.

[33]Dong CS, Zhang C, Liang ZY, et al., 2004. Dimension variation prediction for composites with finite element analysis and regression modeling. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 35(6):735-746.

[34]Ersoy N, Potter K, Wisnom MR, et al., 2005. Development of spring-in angle during cure of a thermosetting composite. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 36(12):1700-1706.

[35]Ersoy N, Garstka T, Potter K, et al., 2010. Modelling of the spring-in phenomenon in curved parts made of a thermosetting composite. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(3):410-418.

[36]Feillée N, de Fina M, Ponche A, et al., 2016. Step-growth thiol-thiol photopolymerization as radiation curing technology. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 55(1):117-128.

[37]Fernlund G, Floyd A, 2007. Process analysis and tool compensation for curved composite L-angles. Proceedings of the 6th Canadian-International Composites Conference, p.14-17.

[38]Fernlund G, Rahman N, Courdji R, et al., 2002. Experimental and numerical study of the effect of cure cycle, tool surface, geometry, and lay-up on the dimensional fidelity of autoclave-processed composite parts. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 33(3):341-351.

[39]Fernlund G, Osooly A, Poursartip A, et al., 2003. Finite element based prediction of process-induced deformation of autoclaved composite structures using 2D process analysis and 3D structural analysis. Composite Structures, 62(2):223-234.

[40]Filleter T, Espinosa HD, 2013. Multi-scale mechanical improvement produced in carbon nanotube fibers by irradiation cross-linking. Carbon, 56:1-11.

[41]Fiorina M, Seman A, Castanie B, et al., 2017. Spring-in prediction for carbon/epoxy aerospace composite structure. Composite Structures, 168:739-745.

[42]Gagani A, Krauklis A, Echtermeyer AT, 2018. Anisotropic fluid diffusion in carbon fiber reinforced composite rods: experimental, analytical and numerical study. Marine Structures, 59:47-59.

[43]Galińska A, 2017. Material models used to predict spring-in of composite elements: a comparative study. Applied Composite Materials, 24(1):159-170.

[44]Garnich MR, Karami G, 2004. Finite element micromechanics for stiffness and strength of wavy fiber composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 38(4):273-292.

[45]Hu HX, Li SX, Wang JH, et al., 2017. Monitoring the gelation and effective chemical shrinkage of composite curing process with a novel FBG approach. Composite Structures, 176:187-194.

[46]Ibos L, Dumoulin J, Feuillet V, 2014. Determination of anisotropic properties of carbon fiber composites for civil engineering applications using infrared thermography with periodic excitation. 2014 Quantitative InfraRed Thermography.

[47]Jia XL, Zhu JM, Li WB, et al., 2015. Compressive and tensile response of CFRP cylinders induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Composites Science and Technology, 110:35-44.

[48]Johnston A, Vaziri R, Poursartip A, 2001. A plane strain model for process-induced deformation of laminated composite structures. Journal of Composite Materials, 35(16):1435-1469.

[49]Joven R, Tavakol B, Rodriguez A, et al., 2013. Characterization of shear stress at the tool-part interface during autoclave processing of prepreg composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 129(4):2017-2028.

[50]Kalagi GR, Patil R, Nayak N, 2018. Experimental study on mechanical properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite materials for wind turbine blades. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(1):2588-2596.

[51]Kappel E, 2013. Process Distortions in Composite Manufacturing–from an Experimental Characterization to a Prediction Approach for the Global Scale. PhD Thesis, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

[52]Kappel E, 2016. Forced-interaction and spring-in–relevant initiators of process-induced distortions in composite manufacturing. Composite Structures, 140:217-229.

[53]Kappel E, 2018. Compensating process-induced distortions of composite structures: a short communication. Composite Structures, 192:67-71.

[54]Kappel E, Stefaniak D, Spröwitz T, et al., 2011. A semi-analytical simulation strategy and its application to warpage of autoclave-processed CFRP parts. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42(12):1985-1994.

[55]Kappel E, Stefaniak D, Holzhüter D, et al., 2013a. Manufacturing distortions of a CFRP box-structure–a semi-numerical prediction approach. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 51:89-98.

[56]Kappel E, Stefaniak D, Hühne C, 2013b. Process distortions in prepreg manufacturing–an experimental study on CFRP L-profiles. Composite Structures, 106:615-625.

[57]Kappel E, Stefaniak D, Fernlund G, 2015. Predicting process-induced distortions in composite manufacturing–a pheno-numerical simulation strategy. Composite Structures, 120: 98-106.

[58]Karami G, Garnich M, 2005. Effective moduli and failure considerations for composites with periodic fiber waviness. Composite Structures, 67(4):461-475.

[59]Kaushik V, Raghavan J, 2010. Experimental study of tool–part interaction during autoclave processing of thermoset polymer composite structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(9):1210-1218.

[60]Khoun L, Hubert P, 2010. Investigation of the dimensional stability of carbon epoxy cylinders manufactured by resin transfer moulding. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(1):116-124.

[61]Khoun L, de Oliveira R, Michaud V, et al., 2011. Investigation of process-induced strains development by fibre bragg grating sensors in resin transfer moulded composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42(3):274-282.

[62]Kim BS, Bernet N, Sunderland P, et al., 2002. Numerical analysis of the dimensional stability of thermoplastic composites using a thermoviscoelastic approach. Journal of Composite Materials, 36(20):2389-2403.

[63]Kim KS, Bae KM, Oh SY, et al., 2012. Trend of carbon fiber-reinforced composites for lightweight vehicles. Elastomers and Composites, 47(1):65-74.

[64]Kravchenko OG, Li CY, Strachan A, et al., 2014. Prediction of the chemical and thermal shrinkage in a thermoset polymer. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 66:35-43.

[65]Kravchenko OG, Kravchenko SG, Pipes RB, 2016. Chemical and thermal shrinkage in thermosetting prepreg. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 80: 72-81.

[66]Kravchenko OG, Kravchenko SG, Pipes RB, 2017. Cure history dependence of residual deformation in a thermosetting laminate. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 99:186-197.

[67]Lee DH, Kim SK, Lee WI, et al., 2006. Smart cure of thick composite filament wound structures to minimize the development of residual stresses. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 37(4):530-537.

[68]Li DN, Li XD, Dai JF, 2018. Process modelling of curing process-induced internal stress and deformation of composite laminate structure with elastic and viscoelastic models. Applied Composite Materials, 25(3):527-544.

[69]Li J, Dong CS, Chen SS, 2009. Consolidation and warpage deformation finite element analysis of filament wound tubes. Applied Composite Materials, 16(5):307-320.

[70]Li J, Yao XF, Liu YH, et al., 2010. Thermo-viscoelastic analysis of the integrated T-shaped composite structures. Composites Science and Technology, 70(10):1497-1503.

[71]Li NY, Li YG, Wu XC, et al., 2017. Tool-part interaction in composites microwave curing: experimental investigation and analysis. Journal of Composite Materials, 51(26):3719-3730.

[72]Li XD, Zhan XH, Liu XY, et al., 2012. Die surface compensation based on the springback. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 45(2):675-680.

[73]Liu H, He MH, Guo J, et al., 2015. Design-oriented modeling of circular FRP-wrapped concrete columns after sustained axial compression. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 16(1):47-58.

[74]Lu Y, Li YG, Li NY, et al., 2016. Reduction of composite deformation based on tool-part thermal expansion matching and stress-free temperature theory. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 88(5-8):1703-1710.

[75]Madhukar MS, Genidy MS, Russell JD, 2000. A new method to reduce cure-induced stresses in thermoset polymer composites, part I: test method. Journal of Composite Materials, 34(22):1882-1904.

[76]Makinde OM, de Faria AR, Donadon MV, 2017. Prediction of shape distortions in angled composite structures. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Solid Mechanics.

[77]Mallick PK, 2007. Fiber-reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design (3rd Edition). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.

[78]Martin A, Defoort B, Kowandy C, et al., 2018. Interfacial layer in high-performance CFRP composites cured out-of-autoclave: influence of the carbon fiber surface and its graphite-like properties. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 110:203-216.

[79]Mrazova M, 2013. Advanced composite materials of the future in aerospace industry. Incas Bulletin, 5(3):139-150.

[80]Msallem YA, Jacquemin F, Boyard N, et al., 2010. Material characterization and residual stresses simulation during the manufacturing process of epoxy matrix composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(1):108-115.

[81]Nawab Y, Tardif X, Boyard N, et al., 2012. Determination and modelling of the cure shrinkage of epoxy vinylester resin and associated composites by considering thermal gradients. Composites Science and Technology, 73:81-87.

[82]Nawab Y, Jaquemin F, Casari P, et al., 2013. Evolution of chemical and thermal curvatures in thermoset-laminated composite plates during the fabrication process. Journal of Composite Materials, 47(3):327-339.

[83]Nawab Y, Boyard N, Jaquemin F, 2014. Effect of pressure and reinforcement type on the volume chemical shrinkage in thermoset resin and composite. Journal of Composite Materials, 48(26):3191-3199.

[84]Olivier PA, El Sawi I, 2010. Designing curing conditions in order to analyse the influence of process-induced stresses upon some mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy laminates at constant Tg and degree of cure. International Journal of Material Forming, 3(S2):1373-1389.

[85]O’Neill JM, Rogers TG, Spencer AJM, 1988. Thermally induced distortions in the moulding of laminated channel sections. Mathematical Engineering in Industry, 2(1):65-72.

[86]Parmentier A, Wucher B, Dumas D, 2016. Influence of the fibre volume fraction parameter on the predictions of the cure-induced deformations in thermoset composite parts. Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials.

[87]Pirrera A, Weaver PM, 2009. Geometrically nonlinear first-order shear deformation theory for general anisotropic shells. AIAA Journal, 47(3):767-782.

[88]Pirrera A, Avitabile D, Weaver PM, 2012. On the thermally induced bistability of composite cylindrical shells for morphing structures. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 49(5):685-700.

[89]Pitarresi G, Alessi S, Tumino D, et al., 2014. Interlaminar fracture toughness behavior of electron-beam cured carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy–resin composites. Polymer Composites, 35(8):1529-1542.

[90]Prulière E, Férec J, Chinesta F, et al., 2010. An efficient reduced simulation of residual stresses in composite forming processes. International Journal of Material Forming, 3(S2):1339-1350.

[91]Radford DW, Rennick TS, 2000. Separating sources of manufacturing distortion in laminated composites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 19(8):621-641.

[92]Roozbehjavan P, Koushyar H, Tavakol B, et al., 2012. Experimental and numerical study of distortion in L-shaped and U-shaped carbon fiber-reinforced composite parts. SAMPE International Symposium Proceedings.

[93]Ruiz E, Trochu F, 2005. Numerical analysis of cure temperature and internal stresses in thin and thick RTM parts. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 36(6):806-826.

[94]Russell JD, Madhukar MS, Genidy MS, et al., 2000. A new method to reduce cure-induced stresses in thermoset polymer composites, part III: correlating stress history to viscosity, degree of cure, and cure shrinkage. Journal of Composite Materials, 34(22):1926-1947.

[95]Senoh T, Kosaka T, Horiuchi T, et al., 2016. Effect of molding conditions on process-induced deformation of asymmetric FRP laminates. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, p.439-444.

[96]Sicot O, Gong XL, Cherouat A, et al., 2003. Determination of residual stress in composite laminates using the incremental hole-drilling method. Journal of Composite Materials, 37(9):831-844.

[97]Sonnenfeld C, Agogué R, Beauchêne P, et al., 2016. Characterization and modelling of spring-in effect on Z-shape composite part. Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials.

[98]Sorrentino L, Tersigni L, 2012. A method for cure process design of thick composite components manufactured by closed die technology. Applied Composite Materials, 19(1):31-45.

[99]Stefaniak D, Kappel E, Spröwitz T, et al., 2012. Experimental identification of process parameters inducing warpage of autoclave-processed CFRP parts. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43(7):1081-1091.

[100]Sun LL, Wang JH, Ni AQ, et al., 2017. Modelling and experiment of process-induced distortions in unsymmetrical laminate plates. Composite Structures, 182:524-532.

[101]Svanberg JM, Holmberg JA, 2004. Prediction of shape distortions part I. FE-implementation of a path dependent constitutive model. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 35(6):711-721.

[102]Takagaki K, Minakuchi S, Takeda N, 2017. Process-induced strain and distortion in curved composites. Part I: development of fiber-optic strain monitoring technique and analytical methods. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 103:236-251.

[103]Tang JM, Lee SKL, 2010. Recent progress of applications of advanced composite materials in aerospace industry. Spacecraft Environment Engineering, 27(5):552-557.

[104]Tavakol B, 2011. Prediction of Residual Stresses and Distortion of Carbon Fiber/epoxy Composites Due to Curing Process. MS Thesis, Wichita State University, Fairmount, Wichita, USA.

[105]Tavakol B, Roozbehjavan P, Ahmed A, et al., 2013. Prediction of residual stresses and distortion in carbon fiber-epoxy composite parts due to curing process using finite element analysis. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 128(2):941-950.

[106]Tominaga Y, Shimamoto D, Hotta Y, 2018. Curing effects on interfacial adhesion between recycled carbon fiber and epoxy resin heated by microwave irradiation. Materials, 11(4):493.

[107]Twigg G, Poursartip A, Fernlund G, 2004. Tool–part interaction in composites processing. Part I: experimental investigation and analytical model. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 35(1):121-133.

[108]Wan LQ, Luo YH, Xue L, et al., 2007. Preparation and properties of a novel polytriazole resin. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 104(2):1038-1042.

[109]Wang HY, Yang P, Zhu RQ, et al., 2016. Preparation and characterization of novel multi-branched polymers in situ cured from benzoxazine/epoxy resin/primary amines blends. RSC Advances, 6(18):15271-15278.

[110]Wang J, Kelly D, Hillier W, 2000. Finite element analysis of temperature induced stresses and deformations of polymer composite components. Journal of Composite Materials, 34(17):1456-1471.

[111]Wang X, Zhao YT, Jin J, et al., 2017. A comparative study on the effect of carbon fillers on electrical and thermal conductivity of a cyanate ester resin. Polymer Testing, 60: 293-298.

[112]Wang XX, Wang CG, Jia YX, et al., 2012. Cure-volume-temperature relationships of epoxy resin and graphite/ epoxy composites. Polymer, 53(19):4152-4156.

[113]Wang XX, Zhao YR, Su H, et al., 2016. Curing process-induced internal stress and deformation of fiber reinforced resin matrix composites: numerical comparison between elastic and viscoelastic models. Polymers and Polymer Composites, 24(2):155-160.

[114]White SR, Hahn HT, 1992. Process modeling of composite materials: residual stress development during cure. Part II. Experimental validation. Journal of Composite Materials, 26(16):2423-2453.

[115]White SR, Hahn HT, 1993. Cure cycle optimization for the reduction of processing-induced residual stresses in composite materials. Journal of Composite Materials, 27(14):1352-1378.

[116]Wichmann MHG, Sumfleth J, Gojny FH, et al., 2006. Glass-fibre-reinforced composites with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties–benefits and limitations of a nanoparticle modified matrix. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 73(16):2346-2359.

[117]Wineman A, Heinrich C, Nguyen N, et al., 2016. A general network theory for the development of curing stresses in an epoxy/fiber composite. Acta Mechanica, 227(12):3585-3601.

[118]Wisnom MR, Gigliotti M, Ersoy N, et al., 2006. Mechanisms generating residual stresses and distortion during manufacture of polymer–matrix composite structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 37(4):522-529.

[119]Wu YJ, Takatoya T, Chung K, et al., 2000. Development of the transient simulated laminate (TSL) methodology for moisture ingression studies using unsymmetric laminates. Journal of Composite Materials, 34(23):1998-2015.

[120]Xiang H, Ling H, Wang J, et al., 2005. A novel high performance RTM resin based on benzoxazine. Polymer Composites, 26(5):563-571.

[121]Yang ZY, Zhang JB, Xie YJ, et al., 2017. Influence of layup and curing on the surface accuracy in the manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite space mirrors. Applied Composite Materials, 24(6):1447-1458.

[122]Yoon KJ, Kim JS, 2001. Effect of thermal deformation and chemical shrinkage on the process induced distortion of carbon/epoxy curved laminates. Journal of Composite Materials, 35(3):253-263.

[123]Zarrelli M, Skordos AA, Partridge IK, 2002. Investigation of cure induced shrinkage in unreinforced epoxy resin. Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 31(9):377-384.

[124]Zeng X, Raghavan J, 2010. Role of tool-part interaction in process-induced warpage of autoclave-manufactured composite structures. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41(9):1174-1183.

[125]Zhang JT, Shang YD, Zhang M, et al., 2016. Cure-dependent viscoelastic analysis on the residual stresses and distortion created in composite corner during curing. Proceedings of the 2nd Annual International Conference on Advanced Material Engineering.

[126]Zhang WL, Chen JJ, Tan ML, et al., 2014. UV-radiation curing process of cationic epoxy adhesive materials. Advanced Materials Research, 983:222-225.

[127]Zhou J, Li YG, Li NY, et al., 2018. A multi-pattern compensation method to ensure even temperature in composite materials during microwave curing process. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 107:10-20.

[128]Zhu Q, Geubelle PH, 2002. Dimensional accuracy of thermoset composites: shape optimization. Journal of Composite Materials, 36(6):647-672.

[129]Zhu Q, Geubelle PH, Li M, et al., 2001. Dimensional accuracy of thermoset composites: simulation of process-induced residual stresses. Journal of Composite Materials, 35(24):2171-2205.

[130]Zobeiry N, 2006. Viscoelastic Constitutive Models for Evaluation of Residual Stresses in Thermoset Composites during Cure. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952276/87952783; E-mail: jzus@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE