Full Text:   <1749>

CLC number: R36

On-line Access: 

Received: 2008-05-13

Revision Accepted: 2008-09-23

Crosschecked: 2009-01-20

Cited: 2

Clicked: 3601

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2009 Vol.10 No.3 P.180~187

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0820161


Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury


Author(s):  Kan XU, Qi-xin CHEN, Fang-cai LI, Wei-shan CHEN, Min LIN, Qiong-hua WU

Affiliation(s):  Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; more

Corresponding email(s):   xukan@medmail.com.cn

Key Words:  Spinal cord injury, Decompression, Apoptosis, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL), Caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X-protein (Bax)


Kan XU, Qi-xin CHEN, Fang-cai LI, Wei-shan CHEN, Min LIN, Qiong-hua WU. Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2009, 10(3): 180~187.

@article{title="Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury",
author="Kan XU, Qi-xin CHEN, Fang-cai LI, Wei-shan CHEN, Min LIN, Qiong-hua WU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="10",
number="3",
pages="180~187",
year="2009",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.B0820161"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury
%A Kan XU
%A Qi-xin CHEN
%A Fang-cai LI
%A Wei-shan CHEN
%A Min LIN
%A Qiong-hua WU
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 10
%N 3
%P 180~187
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2009
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B0820161

TY - JOUR
T1 - Spinal cord decompression reduces rat neural cell apoptosis secondary to spinal cord injury
A1 - Kan XU
A1 - Qi-xin CHEN
A1 - Fang-cai LI
A1 - Wei-shan CHEN
A1 - Min LIN
A1 - Qiong-hua WU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 10
IS - 3
SP - 180
EP - 187
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2009
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B0820161


Abstract: 
Objective: To determine whether spinal cord decompression plays a role in neural cell apoptosis after spinal cord injury. Study design: We used an animal model of compressive spinal cord injury with incomplete paraparesis to evaluate neural cell apoptosis after decompression. apoptosis and cellular damage were assessed by staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL) and immunostaining for caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=78) weighing 300~400 g. The spinal cord was compressed posteriorly at T10 level using a custom-made screw for 6 h, 24 h or continuously, followed by decompression by removal of the screw. The rats were sacrificed on Day 1 or 3 or in Week 1 or 4 post-decompression. The spinal cord was removed en bloc and examined at lesion site, rostral site and caudal site (7.5 mm away from the lesion). Results: The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly lower at the site of decompression on Day 1, and also at the rostral and caudal sites between Day 3 and Week 4 post-decompression, compared with the persistently compressed group. The numbers of cells between Day 1 and Week 4 were immunoreactive to caspase-3 and b-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X-protein (Bax), but not to Bcl-2, correlated with those of TUNEL-positive cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that decompression reduces neural cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1] Aki, T., Toya, S., 1984. Experimental study on changes of the spinal-evoked potential and circulatory dynamics following spinal cord compression and decompression. Spine, 9(8):800-809.

[2] Baydin, A., Cokluk, C., Aydin, K., 2007. A new minimally invasive experimental spinal cord injury model in rabbits. Minim. Invasive Neurosurg., 50(3):170-172.

[3] Carlson, G.D., Minato, Y., Okada, A., Gorden, C.D., Warden, K.E., Barbeau, J.M., Biro, C.L., Bahnuik, E., Bohlman, H.H., Lamanna, J.C., 1997. Early time-dependent decompression for spinal cord injury: vascular mechanisms of recovery. J. Neurotrauma, 14(12):951-962.

[4] Crowe, M.J., Bresnahan, J.C., Shuman, S.L., Masters, J.N., Beattie, M.S., 1997. Apoptosis and delayed degeneration after spinal cord injury in rats and monkeys. Nat. Med., 3(1):73-76.

[5] Delamarter, R.B., Sherman, J., Carr, J.B., 1995. Pathophysiology of spinal cord injury: recovery after immediate and delayed decompression. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 77(7): 1042-1049.

[6] Dimar, J.R., Glassman, S.D., Raque, G.H., Zhang, Y.P., Shields, C.B., 1999. The influence of spinal canal narrowing and timing of decompression on neurologic recovery after spinal cord contusion in a rat model. Spine, 24(16):1623-1633.

[7] Dolan, E.J., Tator, C.H., Endrenyi, L., 1980. The value of decompression for acute experimental spinal cord compression injury. J. Neurosurg., 53(6):749-755.

[8] Emery, E., Aldana, P., Bunge, M.B., Puckett, W., Srinivasan, A., Keane, R.W., Bethea, J., Levi, A.D., 1998. Apoptosis after traumatic human spinal cord injury. J. Neurosurg., 89(6):911-920.

[9] Guha, A., Tator, C.H., Endrenyi, L., Piper, I., 1987. Decompression of the spinal cord improves recovery after acute experimental spinal cord compression injury. Paraplegia, 25(4):324-339.

[10] Hengartner, M.O., 2000. The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature, 407(6805):770-776.

[11] Kasahara, K., Nakagawa, T., Kubota, T., 2006. Neuronal loss and expression of neurotrophic factors in a model of rat chronic compressive spinal cord injury. Spine, 31(18): 2059-2066.

[12] Katoh, K., Ikata, T., Katoh, S., Hamada, Y., Nakauchi, K., Sano, T., Niwa, M., 1996. Induction and its spread of apoptosis in rat spinal cord after mechanical trauma. Neurosci. Lett., 216(1):9-12.

[13] Li, G.L., Brodin, G., Farooque, M., Funa, K., Holtz, A., Wang, W.L., Olsson, Y., 1996. Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 after compression trauma to rat spinal cord. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 55(4):280-289.

[14] Liu, X.Z., Xu, X.M., Hu, R., Du, C., Zhang, S.X., McDonald, J.W., Dong, H.X., Wu, Y.J., Fan, G.S., Jacquin, M.F., et al., 1997. Neuronal and glial apoptosis after traumatic spinal cord injury. J. Neurosci., 17(14):5395-5406.

[15] Martinou, J.C., Dubois-Dauphin, M., Staple, J.K., Rodriguez, I., Frankowski, H., Missotten, M., Albertini, P., Talabot, D., Catsicas, S., Pietra, C., 1994. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice protects neurons from naturally occurring cell death and experimental ischemia. Neuron, 13(4):1017-1030.

[16] Nyström, B., Berglund, J.E., 1988. Spinal cord restitution following compression injuries in rats. Acta Neurol. Scand., 78(6):467-472.

[17] Panjabi, M.M., 1987. Experimental spinal cord trauma: a biomechanical viewpoint. Paraplegia, 25(3):217-220.

[18] Pellegrini, M., Strasser, A., 1999. A portrait of the Bcl-2 protein family: life, death, and the whole picture. J. Clin. Immunol., 19(6):365-377.

[19] Saito, N., Yamamoto, T., Watanabe, T., Abe, Y., Kumagai, T., 2000. Implications of p53 protein expression in experimental spinal cord injury. J. Neurotrauma, 17(2): 173-182.

[20] Shuman, S.L., Bresnahan, J.C., Beattie, M.S., 1997. Apoptosis of microglia and oligodendrocytes after spinal cord contussion in rats. J. Neurosci. Res., 50(5):798-808.

[21] Springer, J.E., Azbill, R.D., Knapp, P.E., 1999. Activation of the caspase-3 apoptotic cascade in traumatic spinal cord injury. Nat. Med., 5(8):943-946.

[22] Turker, M., Tezeren, G., Tukenmez, M., Percin, S., 2005. Indirect spinal canal decompression of vertebral burst fracture in calf model. Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg., 125(5):336-341.

[23] Wada, S., Yone, K., Ishidou, Y., Nagamine, T., Nakahara, S., Niiyama, T., Sakou, T., 1999. Apoptosis following spinal cord injury in rats and preventative effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. J. Neurosurg. Spine, 91(1 Suppl.):98-104.

[24] White, F.A., Keller-Peck, C.R., Knudson, C.M., Korsmeyer, S.J., Snider, W.D., 1998. Widespread elimination of naturally occurring neuronal death in Bax-deficient mice. J. Neurosci., 18(4):1428-1439.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE