Full Text:   <753>

Summary:  <360>

CLC number: R730.1

On-line Access: 2020-03-02

Received: 2019-07-16

Revision Accepted: 2019-10-21

Crosschecked: 2019-12-17

Cited: 0

Clicked: 952

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Bo-lun Zhou

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8143-4852

Cai-ping Ren

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6880-7394

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2020 Vol.21 No.2 P.122-136

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1900422


Roles of PTBP1 in alternative splicing, glycolysis, and oncogensis


Author(s):  Wei Zhu, Bo-lun Zhou, Li-juan Rong, Li Ye, Hong-juan Xu, Yao Zhou, Xue-jun Yan, Wei-dong Liu, Bin Zhu, Lei Wang, Xing-jun Jiang, Cai-ping Ren

Affiliation(s):  NHC Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis (Central South University) and the Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of the Chinese Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute, Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China

Corresponding email(s):   rencaiping@csu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), Alternative splicing, Glycolysis, M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), Cancer


Wei Zhu, Bo-lun Zhou, Li-juan Rong, Li Ye, Hong-juan Xu, Yao Zhou, Xue-jun Yan, Wei-dong Liu, Bin Zhu, Lei Wang, Xing-jun Jiang, Cai-ping Ren. Roles of PTBP1 in alternative splicing, glycolysis, and oncogensis[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2020, 21(2): 122-136.

@article{title="Roles of PTBP1 in alternative splicing, glycolysis, and oncogensis",
author="Wei Zhu, Bo-lun Zhou, Li-juan Rong, Li Ye, Hong-juan Xu, Yao Zhou, Xue-jun Yan, Wei-dong Liu, Bin Zhu, Lei Wang, Xing-jun Jiang, Cai-ping Ren",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="21",
number="2",
pages="122-136",
year="2020",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.B1900422"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Roles of PTBP1 in alternative splicing, glycolysis, and oncogensis
%A Wei Zhu
%A Bo-lun Zhou
%A Li-juan Rong
%A Li Ye
%A Hong-juan Xu
%A Yao Zhou
%A Xue-jun Yan
%A Wei-dong Liu
%A Bin Zhu
%A Lei Wang
%A Xing-jun Jiang
%A Cai-ping Ren
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 21
%N 2
%P 122-136
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2020
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1900422

TY - JOUR
T1 - Roles of PTBP1 in alternative splicing, glycolysis, and oncogensis
A1 - Wei Zhu
A1 - Bo-lun Zhou
A1 - Li-juan Rong
A1 - Li Ye
A1 - Hong-juan Xu
A1 - Yao Zhou
A1 - Xue-jun Yan
A1 - Wei-dong Liu
A1 - Bin Zhu
A1 - Lei Wang
A1 - Xing-jun Jiang
A1 - Cai-ping Ren
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 21
IS - 2
SP - 122
EP - 136
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2020
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1900422


Abstract: 
polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) plays an essential role in splicing and is expressed in almost all cell types in humans, unlike the other proteins of the PTBP family. PTBP1 mediates several cellular processes in certain types of cells, including the growth and differentiation of neuronal cells and activation of immune cells. Its function is regulated by various molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and RNA-binding proteins. PTBP1 plays roles in various diseases, particularly in some cancers, including colorectal cancer, renal cell cancer, breast cancer, and glioma. In cancers, it acts mainly as a regulator of glycolysis, apoptosis, proliferation, tumorigenesis, invasion, and migration. The role of PTBP1 in cancer has become a popular research topic in recent years, and this research has contributed greatly to the formulation of a useful therapeutic strategy for cancer. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to PTBP1 and discuss how it regulates the development of cancer cells.

多聚嘧啶区结合蛋白1(PTBP1)在选择性剪接、糖酵解和肿瘤发生中的作用

概要:多聚嘧啶区结合蛋白1(PTBP1)在多种疾病,尤其是在某些癌症中发挥作用.为明确PTBP1在人体的生物学功能,本文汇总了调控PTBP1相关的miRNA、长链非编码RNA(lncRNA)和RNA结合蛋白.另外,我们重点阐述了PTBP1充当糖酵解、细胞凋亡、增殖、肿瘤发生、侵袭和迁移的调节剂,并为制定有用的癌症治疗策略做出了潜在贡献.
关键词:多聚嘧啶区结合蛋白1(PTBP1);选择性剪接;糖酵解;丙酮酸激酶M2亚型(PKM2);癌症

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Aldave G, Gonzalez-Huarriz M, Rubio A, et al., 2018. The aberrant splicing of BAF45d links splicing regulation and transcription in glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology, 20(7):930-941.

[2]Attig J, Agostini F, Gooding C, et al., 2018. Heteromeric RNP assembly at LINEs controls lineage-specific RNA processing. Cell, 174(5):1067-1081.e17.

[3]Barbagallo D, Caponnetto A, Cirnigliaro M, et al., 2018. CircSMARCA5 inhibits migration of glioblastoma multiforme cells by regulating a molecular axis involving splicing factors SRSF1/SRSF3/PTB. Int J Mol Sci, 19(2):480.

[4]Black DL, 2003. Mechanisms of alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing. Annu Rev Biochem, 72:291-336.

[5]Brown CE, Mackall CL, 2019. CAR T cell therapy: inroads to response and resistance. Nat Rev Immunol, 19(2):73-74.

[6]Bubenik J, Swanson MS, 2018. Strring up cancer with lncRNA. Mol Cell, 72(3):399-401.

[7]Busch A, Hertel KJ, 2012. Evolution of SR protein and hnRNP splicing regulatory factors. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA, 3(1):1-12.

[8]Calabretta S, Bielli P, Passacantilli I, et al., 2016. Modulation of PKM alternative splicing by PTBP1 promotes gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Oncogene, 35(16):2031-2039.

[9]Caruso P, Dunmore BJ, Schlosser K, et al., 2017. Identification of microRNA-124 as a major regulator of enhanced endothelial cell glycolysis in pulmonary arterial hypertension via PTBP1 (polypyrimidine tract binding protein) and pyruvate kinase M2. Circulation, 136(25):2451-2467.

[10]Cheung HC, Hai T, Zhu W, et al., 2009. Splicing factors PTBP1 and PTBP2 promote proliferation and migration of glioma cell lines. Brain, 132(8):2277-2288.

[11]Corrionero A, Valcarcel J, 2009. RNA processing: redrawing the map of charted territory. Mol Cell, 36(6):918-919.

[12]Cote GJ, Zhu W, Thomas A, et al., 2012. Hydrogen peroxide alters splicing of soluble guanylyl cyclase and selectively modulates expression of splicing regulators in human cancer cells. PLoS ONE, 7(7):e41099.

[13]Cui J, Placzek WJ, 2016. PTBP1 modulation of MCL1 expression regulates cellular apoptosis induced by antitubulin chemotherapeutics. Cell Death Differ, 23(10):1681-1690.

[14]del Rio-Moreno M, Alors-Perez E, Gonzalez-Rubio S, et al., 2019. Dysregulation of the splicing machinery is associated to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 104(8):3389-3402.

[15]Domingues RG, Lago-Baldaia I, Pereira-Castro I, et al., 2016. CD5 expression is regulated during human T-cell activation by alternative polyadenylation, PTBP1, and miR-204. Eur J Immunol, 46(6):1490-1503.

[16]Dou XM, Zhang XS, 2016. RNA-binding protein PTB in spermatogenesis: progress in studies. Nat J Androl, 22(9):856-860 (in Chinese).

[17]Ehehalt F, Knoch K, Erdmann K, et al., 2010. Impaired insulin turnover in islets from type 2 diabetic patients. Islets, 2(1):30-36.

[18]Ferrarese R, Harsh IV GR, Yadav AK, et al., 2014. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression. J Clin Invest, 124(7):2861-2876.

[19]Finney OC, Brakke H, Rawlings-Rhea S, et al., 2019. CD19 CAR T cell product and disease attributes predict leukemia remission durability. J Clin Invest, 129(5):2123-2132.

[20]Fu XD, Ares M Jr, 2014. Context-dependent control of alternative splicing by RNA-binding proteins. Nat Rev Genet, 15(10):689-701.

[21]Ge ZY, Quek BL, Beemon KL, et al., 2016. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 protects mRNAs from recognition by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. eLife, 5:e11155.

[22]Georgilis A, Klotz S, Hanley CJ, et al., 2018. PTBP1-mediated alternative splicing regulates the inflammatory secretome and the pro-tumorigenic effects of senescent cells. Cancer Cell, 34(1):85-102.e9.

[23]Ghetti A, Pinol-Roma S, Michael WM, et al., 1992. hnRNP 1, the polyprimidine tract-binding protein: distinct nuclear localization and association with hnRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res, 20(14):3671-3678.

[24]Grammatikakis I, Gorospe M, 2016. Identification of neural stem cell differentiation repressor complex Pnky-PTBP1. Stem Cell Investig, 3:10.

[25]Guo JH, Jia J, Jia R, 2015. PTBP1 and PTBP2 impaired autoregulation of SRSF3 in cancer cells. Sci Rep, 5(1):14548.

[26]Hamid FM, Makeyev EV, 2017. A mechanism underlying position-specific regulation of alternative splicing. Nucleic Acids Res, 45(21):12455-12468.

[27]Han W, Wang L, Yin B, et al., 2014. Characterization of a novel posttranslational modification in polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins by SUMO1. BMB Rep, 47(4):233-238.

[28]He X, Arslan AD, Ho TT, et al., 2014. Involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) in maintaining breast cancer cell growth and malignant properties. Oncogenesis, 3(1):e84.

[29]He XL, Yuan CF, Yang JL, 2015. Regulation and functional significance of CDC42 alternative splicing in ovarian cancer. Oncotarget, 6(30):29651-29663.

[30]Hollander D, Donyo M, Atias N, et al., 2016. A network-based analysis of colon cancer splicing changes reveals a tumorigenesis-favoring regulatory pathway emanating from ELK1. Genome Res, 26(4):541-553.

[31]Hwang SR, Murga-Zamalloa C, Brown N, et al., 2017. Pyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 mediates pyruvate kinase M2-dependent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and oncogenesis in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Lab Invest, 97(8):962-970.

[32]Iwai Y, Hamanishi J, Chamoto K, et al., 2017. Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway. J Biomed Sci, 24(1):26.

[33]Izaguirre DI, Zhu W, Hai T, et al., 2012. PTBP1-dependent regulation of USP5 alternative RNA splicing plays a role in glioblastoma tumorigenesis. Mol Carcinog, 51(11):895-906.

[34]Jeong DE, Heo S, Han JH, et al., 2018. Glucose controls the expression of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 via the insulin receptor signaling pathway in pancreatic β cells. Mol Cells, 41(10):909-916.

[35]Jiang JY, Chen X, Liu H, et al., 2017. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma by regulating alternative splicing of PKM. Am J Cancer Res, 7(2):245-259.

[36]Jo YK, Roh SA, Lee H, et al., 2017. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1-mediated down-regulation of ATG10 facilitates metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 385: 21-27.

[37]Juan WC, Roca X, Ong ST, 2014. Identification of cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in the regulation of BIM pre-mRNA splicing. PLoS ONE, 9(4):e95210.

[38]Kang K, Peng X, Zhang X, et al., 2013. MicroRNA-124 suppresses the transactivation of nuclear factor of activated T cells by targeting multiple genes and inhibits the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem, 288(35):25414-25427.

[39]Keppetipola N, Sharma S, Li Q, et al., 2012. Neuronal regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by polypyrimidine tract binding proteins, PTBP1 and PTBP2. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol, 47(4):360-378.

[40]Kumazaki M, Shinohara H, Taniguchi K, et al., 2016. Perturbation of the Warburg effect increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to trail-induced cell death. Exp Cell Res, 347(1):133-142.

[41]la Porta J, Matus-Nicodemos R, Valentin-Acevedo A, et al., 2016. The RNA-binding protein, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1) is a key regulator of CD4 T cell activation. PLoS ONE, 11(8):e0158708.

[42]Li CG, Zhao ZM, Zhou ZP, et al., 2016. Linc-ROR confers gemcitabine resistance to pancreatic cancer cells via inducing autophagy and modulating the miR-124/PTBP1/ PKM2 axis. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, 78(6):1199-1207.

[43]Licatalosi DD, Yano M, Fak JJ, et al., 2012. Ptbp2 represses adult-specific splicing to regulate the generation of neuronal precursors in the embryonic brain. Genes Dev, 26(14):1626-1642.

[44]Linares AJ, Lin CH, Damianov A, et al., 2015. The splicing regulator PTBP1 controls the activity of the transcription factor Pbx1 during neuronal differentiation. eLife, 4: e09268.

[45]Ling JP, Chhabra R, Merran JD, et al., 2016. PTBP1 and PTBP2 repress nonconserved cryptic exons. Cell Rep, 17(1):104-113.

[46]Liu C, Yang Z, Wu J, et al., 2018. Long noncoding RNA H19 interacts with polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 to reprogram hepatic lipid homeostasis. Hepatology, 67(5):1768-1783.

[47]Liu JH, Li YP, Tong JY, et al., 2018. Long non-coding RNA-dependent mechanism to regulate heme biosynthesis and erythrocyte development. Nat Commun, 9(1):4386.

[48]Llorian M, Schwartz S, Clark TA, et al., 2010. Position-dependent alternative splicing activity revealed by global profiling of alternative splicing events regulated by PTB. Nat Struct Mol Biol, 17(9):1114-1123.

[49]Llorian M, Gooding C, Bellora N, et al., 2016. The alternative splicing program of differentiated smooth muscle cells involves concerted non-productive splicing of post-transcriptional regulators. Nucleic Acids Res, 44(18):8933-8950.

[50]Lorenzi P, Sangalli A, Fochi S, et al., 2019. RNA-binding proteins RBM20 and PTBP1 regulate the alternative splicing of FHOD3. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 106:74-83.

[51]Marzese DM, Liu M, Huynh JL, et al., 2015. Brain metastasis is predetermined in early stages of cutaneous melanoma by CD44v6 expression through epigenetic regulation of the spliceosome. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 28(1):82-93.

[52]Medina MW, Gao F, Naidoo D, et al., 2011. Coordinately regulated alternative splicing of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. PLoS ONE, 6(4):e19420.

[53]Méreau A, Anquetil V, Lerivray H, et al., 2015. A posttranscriptional mechanism that controls Ptbp1 abundance in the Xenopus epidermis. Mol Cell Biol, 35(4):758-768.

[54]Minami K, Taniguchi K, Sugito N, et al., 2017. MiR-145 negatively regulates Warburg effect by silencing KLF4 and PTBP1 in bladder cancer cells. Oncotarget, 8(20):33064-33077.

[55]Miyajima M, Zhang BH, Sugiura Y, et al., 2017. Metabolic shift induced by systemic activation of T cells in PD-1-deficient mice perturbs brain monoamines and emotional behavior. Nat Immunol, 18(12):1342-1352.

[56]Monzón-Casanova E, Screen M, Díaz-Muñoz MD, et al., 2018. The RNA-binding protein PTBP1 is necessary for B cell selection in germinal centers. Nat Immunol, 19(3):267-278.

[57]Noiret M, Méreau A, Angrand G, et al., 2017. Robust identification of Ptbp1-dependent splicing events by a junction-centric approach in Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol, 426(2):449-459.

[58]Nordin A, Larsson E, Holmberg M, 2012. The defective splicing caused by the ISCU intron mutation in patients with myopathy with lactic acidosis is repressed by PTBP1 but can be derepressed by IGF2BP1. Hum Mutat, 33(3):467-470.

[59]Oberstrass FC, Auweter SD, Erat M, et al., 2005. Structure of PTB bound to RNA: specific binding and implications for splicing regulation. Science, 309(5743):2054-2057.

[60]Ouyang GQ, Xiong L, Liu ZP, et al., 2018. Inhibition of autophagy potentiates the apoptosis-inducing effects of photodynamic therapy on human colon cancer cells. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther, 21:396-403.

[61]Pospiech N, Cibis H, Dietrich L, et al., 2018. Identification of novel PANDAR protein interaction partners involved in splicing regulation. Sci Rep, 8(1):2798.

[62]Ramos AD, Andersen RE, Liu SJ, et al., 2015. The long noncoding RNA Pnky regulates neuronal differentiation of embryonic and postnatal neural stem cells. Cell Stem Cell, 16(4):439-447.

[63]Rawcliffe DFR, Osterman L, Nordin A, et al., 2018. PTBP1 acts as a dominant repressor of the aberrant tissue-specific splicing of ISCU in hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis. Mol Genet Genomic Med, 6(6):887-897.

[64]Ren SS, Deng JW, Hong M, et al., 2019. Ethical considerations of cellular immunotherapy for cancer. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 20(1):23-31.

[65]Sachdeva M, Zhu SM, Wu FT, et al., 2009. p53 represses c-Myc through induction of the tumor suppressor miR-145. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 106(9):3207-3212.

[66]Sang B, Zhang YY, Guo ST, et al., 2018. Dual functions for OVAAL in initiation of RAF/MEK/ERK prosurvival signals and evasion of p27-mediated cellular senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 115(50):E11661-E11670.

[67]Santiago JA, Potashkin JA, 2015a. Blood biomarkers associated with cognitive decline in early stage and drug-naive Parkinson’s disease patients. PLoS ONE, 10(11):e0142582.

[68]Santiago JA, Potashkin JA, 2015b. Network-based metaanalysis identifies HNF4A and PTBP1 as longitudinally dynamic biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(7):2257-2262.

[69]Sasabe T, Futai E, Ishiura S, 2011. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 regulates the alternative splicing of dopamine receptor D2. J Neurochem, 116(1):76-81.

[70]Sasanuma H, Ozawa M, Yoshida N, 2018. RNA-binding protein Ptbp1 is essential for BCR-mediated antibody production. Int Immunol, 31(3):157-166.

[71]Sayed ME, Yuan L, Robin JD, et al., 2018. NOVA1 directs PTBP1 to hTERT pre-mRNA and promotes telomerase activity in cancer cells. Oncogene, 38(16):2937-2952.

[72]Shan H, Hou P, Zhang M, et al., 2018. PTBP1 knockdown in renal cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro and metastasis in vivo via the hypoxia inducible factor-1α pathway. Int J Oncol, 52(5):1613-1622.

[73]Shan SH, Shi JY, Yang P, et al., 2017. Apigenin restrains colon cancer cell proliferation via targeted blocking of pyruvate kinase M2-dependent glycolysis. J Agric Food Chem, 65(37):8136-8144.

[74]Sharma S, Maris C, Allain FHT, et al., 2011. U1 snRNA directly interacts with polypyrimidine tract-binding protein during splicing repression. Mol Cell, 41(5):579-588.

[75]Shi Y, Liu N, Lai WW, et al., 2018. Nuclear EGFR-PKM2 axis induces cancer stem cell-like characteristics in irradiation-resistant cells. Cancer Lett, 422:81-93.

[76]Shinohara H, Kumazaki M, Minami Y, et al., 2016. Perturbation of energy metabolism by fatty-acid derivative AIC-47 and imatinib in BCR-ABL-harboring leukemic cells. Cancer Lett, 371(1):1-11.

[77]Smith P, al Hashimi A, Girard J, et al., 2011. In vivo regulation of amyloid precursor protein neuronal splicing by microRNAs. J Neurochem, 116(2):240-247.

[78]Stork C, Li ZL, Lin L, et al., 2018. Developmental Xist induction is mediated by enhanced splicing. Nucleic Acids Res, 47(3):1532-1543.

[79]Sugito N, Taniguchi K, Kuranaga Y, et al., 2017. Cancer-specific energy metabolism in rhabdomyosarcoma cells is regulated by microRNA. Nucleic Acid Ther, 27(6):365-377.

[80]Sugiyama T, Taniguchi K, Matsuhashi N, et al., 2016. MiR-133b inhibits growth of human gastric cancer cells by silencing pyruvate kinase muscle-splicer polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1. Cancer Sci, 107(12):1767-1775.

[81]Sveen A, Kilpinen S, Ruusulehto A, et al., 2016. Aberrant RNA splicing in cancer; expression changes and driver mutations of splicing factor genes. Oncogene, 35(19):2413-2427.

[82]Swinburne IA, Meyer CA, Liu XS, et al., 2006. Genomic localization of RNA binding proteins reveals links between pre-mRNA processing and transcription. Genome Res, 16(7):912-921.

[83]Takahashi H, Nishimura J, Kagawa Y, et al., 2015. Significance of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 expression in colorectal cancer. Mol Cancer Ther, 14(7):1705-1716.

[84]Takai T, Yoshikawa Y, Inamoto T, et al., 2017. A novel combination RNAi toward Warburg effect by replacement with miR-145 and silencing of PTBP1 induces apoptotic cell death in bladder cancer cells. Int J Mol Sci, 18(1):179.

[85]Tang SJ, Luo SF, Ho JXJ, et al., 2016. Characterization of the regulation of CD46 RNA alternative splicing. J Biol Chem, 291(27):14311-14323.

[86]Tang ZZ, Sharma S, Zheng S, et al., 2011. Regulation of the mutually exclusive exons 8a and 8 in the CaV1.2 calcium channel transcript by polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. J Biol Chem, 286(12):10007-10016.

[87]Taniguchi K, Sugito N, Kumazaki M, et al., 2015. Positive feedback of DDX6/c-Myc/PTB1 regulated by miR-124 contributes to maintenance of the Warburg effect in colon cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis, 1852(9):1971-1980.

[88]Taniguchi K, Sakai M, Sugito N, et al., 2016. PTBP1-associated microRNA-1 and -133b suppress the Warburg effect in colorectal tumors. Oncotarget, 7(14):18940-18952.

[89]Taniguchi K, Sugito N, Shinohara H, et al., 2018. Organ-specific microRNAs (MIR122, 137, and 206) contribute to tissue characteristics and carcinogenesis by regulating pyruvate kinase M1/2 (PKM) expression. Int J Mol Sci, 19(5):1276.

[90]Vaquero-Garcia J, Barrera A, Gazzara MR, et al., 2016. A new view of transcriptome complexity and regulation through the lens of local splicing variations. Elife, 5:e11752.

[91]Vuong JK, Lin CH, Zhang M, et al., 2016. PTBP1 and PTBP2 serve both specific and redundant functions in neuronal pre-mRNA splicing. Cell Rep, 17(10):2766-2775.

[92]Wagner EJ, Carstens RP, Garcia-Blanco MA, 1999. A novel isoform ratio switch of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Electrophoresis, 20(4-5):1082-1086.

[93]Wang JL, Yang MY, Xiao S, et al., 2018. Downregulation of castor zinc finger 1 predicts poor prognosis and facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via MAPK/ERK signaling. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 37(1):45.

[94]Wang L, Yang LY, Yang ZL, et al., 2019. Glycolytic enzyme PKM2 mediates autophagic activation to promote cell survival in NPM1-mutated leukemia. Int J Biol Sci, 15(4):882-894.

[95]Wang ZN, Liu D, Yin B, et al., 2017. High expression of PTBP1 promote invasion of colorectal cancer by alternative splicing of cortactin. Oncotarget, 8(22):36185-36202.

[96]Wollerton MC, Gooding C, Wagner EJ, et al., 2004. Autoregulation of polypyrimidine tract binding protein by alternative splicing leading to nonsense-mediated decay. Mol Cell, 13(1):91-100.

[97]Xie R, Chen X, Chen Z, et al., 2019. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 promotes lymphatic metastasis and proliferation of bladder cancer via alternative splicing of MEIS2 and PKM. Cancer Lett, 449:31-44.

[98]Xu J, Liu H, Yang Y, et al., 2019. Genome-wide profiling of cervical RNA-binding proteins identifies human papillomavirus regulation of RNASEH2A expression by viral E7 and E2F1. mBio, 10(1):e02687-18.

[99]Xue YC, Zhou Y, Wu TB, et al., 2009. Genome-wide analysis of PTB-RNA interactions reveals a strategy used by the general splicing repressor to modulate exon inclusion or skipping. Mol Cell, 36(6):996-1006.

[100]Yang B, Hu PS, Lin XH, et al., 2015. PTBP1 induces ADAR1 p110 isoform expression through IRES-like dependent translation control and influences cell proliferation in gliomas. Cell Mol Life Sci, 72(22):4383-4397.

[101]Yang Y, Wang CF, Zhao KL, et al., 2018. TRMP, a p53-inducible long noncoding RNA, regulates G1/S cell cycle progression by modulating IRES-dependent p27 translation. Cell Death Dis, 9(9):886.

[102]Yao WL, Yue P, Zhang GJ, et al., 2015. Enhancing therapeutic efficacy of the MEK inhibitor, MEK162, by blocking autophagy or inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling in human lung cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 364(1):70-78.

[103]Yap K, Lim ZQ, Khandelia P, et al., 2012. Coordinated regulation of neuronal mRNA steady-state levels through developmentally controlled intron retention. Genes Dev, 26(11):1209-1223.

[104]Zhang L, Yang Z, Trottier J, et al., 2017. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 induces cholestatic liver injury by interaction with PTBP1 to facilitate shp mRNA decay. Hepatology, 65(2):604-615.

[105]Zhang SL, Wei JS, Li SQ, et al., 2016. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. Cancer Lett, 371(2):214-224.

[106]Zhang T, Li JJ, He Y, et al., 2018. A small molecule targeting myoferlin exerts promising anti-tumor effects on breast cancer. Nat Commun, 9(1):3726.

[107]Zhang XC, Chen MH, Wu XB, et al., 2016. Cell-type-specific alternative splicing governs cell fate in the developing cerebral cortex. Cell, 166(5):1147-1162.e15.

[108]Zhao M, Zhuo ML, Zheng X, et al., 2019. FGFR1β is a driver isoform of FGFR1 alternative splicing in breast cancer cells. Oncotarget, 10(1):30-44.

[109]Zheng SK, Gray EE, Chawla G, et al., 2012. PSD-95 is post-transcriptionally repressed during early neural development by PTBP1 and PTBP2. Nat Neurosci, 15(3):381-388.

[110]Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G, et al., 2011. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802):a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol, 12(8):735-742.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE