Full Text:   <1942>

CLC number: TM131.4+1

On-line Access: 2010-09-30

Received: 2009-11-17

Revision Accepted: 2010-06-02

Crosschecked: 2010-09-03

Cited: 17

Clicked: 4290

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 2010 Vol.11 No.10 P.824-834


Design considerations for electromagnetic couplers in contactless power transmission systems for deep-sea applications

Author(s):  Ze-song Li, De-jun Li, Lin Lin, Ying Chen

Affiliation(s):  State Key Lab of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   zesonlee@gmail.com, li_dejun@zju.edu.cn, ychen@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Contactless power transmission (CLPT), EM coupler, Deep sea, Gap effects

Share this article to: More <<< Previous Article|

Ze-song Li, De-jun Li, Lin Lin, Ying Chen. Design considerations for electromagnetic couplers in contactless power transmission systems for deep-sea applications[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 2010, 11(10): 824-834.

@article{title="Design considerations for electromagnetic couplers in contactless power transmission systems for deep-sea applications",
author="Ze-song Li, De-jun Li, Lin Lin, Ying Chen",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science C",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Design considerations for electromagnetic couplers in contactless power transmission systems for deep-sea applications
%A Ze-song Li
%A De-jun Li
%A Lin Lin
%A Ying Chen
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C
%V 11
%N 10
%P 824-834
%@ 1869-1951
%D 2010
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.C0910711

T1 - Design considerations for electromagnetic couplers in contactless power transmission systems for deep-sea applications
A1 - Ze-song Li
A1 - De-jun Li
A1 - Lin Lin
A1 - Ying Chen
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science C
VL - 11
IS - 10
SP - 824
EP - 834
%@ 1869-1951
Y1 - 2010
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.C0910711

In underwater applications of contactless power transmission (CLPT) systems, high pressure and noncoaxial operations will change the parameters of electromagnetic (EM) couplers. As a result, the system will divert from its optimum performance. Using a reluctance modeling method, we investigated the gap effects on the EM coupler in deep-sea environment. Calculations and measurements were performed to analyze the influence of high pressure and noncoaxial alignments on the coupler. It was shown that it is useful to set a relatively large gap between cores to reduce the influence of pressure. Experiments were carried out to verify the transferring capacity of the designed coupler and system for a fixed frequency. The results showed that an EM coupler with a large gap can serve a stable and efficient power transmission for the CLPT system. The designed system can transfer more than 400 W electrical power with a 2-mm gap in the EM coupler, and the efficiency was up to 90% coaxially and 87% non-coaxially in 40 MPa salt water. Finally, a mechanical layout of a 400 W EM coupler for the underwater application in 4000-m deep sea was proposed.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Ayano, H., Nagase, H., Inaba, H., 2004. A highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system. Electr. Eng. Jpn., 148(1):66-74.

[2]Choi, B., Nho, J., Cha, H.Y., Ahn, T., Choi, S., 2004. Design and implementation of low-profile contactless battery charger using planar printed circuit board windings as energy transfer device. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 51(1):140-147.

[3]Covic, G.A., Boys, J.T., Kissin, M.L.G., Lu, H.G., 2007. A three-phase inductive power transfer system for roadway-powered vehicles. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 54(6):3370-3378.

[4]Feezor, M.D., Sorrell, F.Y., Blankinship, P.R., Bellingham, J.G., 2001. An interface system for autonomous undersea vehicles. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 26(4):522-525.

[5]Fernandez, C., Garcia, O., Prieto, R., Cobos, J.A., Uceda, J., 2002. Overview of Different Alternatives for the Contactless Transmission of Energy. Proc. 28th Annual Conf. of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 1-4:1318-1323.

[6]Green, A.W., Boys, J.T., 1994. 10 kHz Inductively Coupled Power Transfer: Concept and Control. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Power Electronics and Variable-Speed Drives, 399:694-699.

[7]Hayes, J.G., O'Donovan, N., Egan, M.G., O'Donnell, T., 2003. Inductance Characterization of High-Leakage Transformers. 18th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conf. and Exposition, 1-2:1150-1156.

[8]Hirai, J., Kim, T.W., Kawamura, A., 2000. Study on intelligent battery charging using inductive transmission of power and information. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 15(2):335-345.

[9]Jung, K.H., Kim, Y.H., Kim, J., Kim, Y.J., 2009. Wireless power transmission for implantable devices using inductive component of closed magnetic circuit. Electron. Lett., 45(1):21-22.

[10]Kojiya, T., Sato, F., Matsuki, H., Sato, T., 2004. Automatic Power Supply System to Underwater Vehicles Utilizing Non-contacting Technology. MTS/IEEE Techno-Ocean, 1-4:2341-2345.

[11]Kojiya, T., Sato, F., Matsuki, H., Sato, T., 2005. Construction of Non-contacting Power Feeding System to Underwater Vehicle Utilizing Electro Magnetic Induction. Europe Oceans, 1-2:709-712.

[12]le Floch, M., Loaec, J., Pascard, H., Globus, A., 1981. Effect of pressure on soft magnetic-materials. IEEE Trans. Magn., 17(6):3129-3134.

[13]Liu, X., Hui, S.Y.R., 2008. Optimal design of a hybrid winding structure for planar contactless battery charging platform. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 23(1):455-463.

[14]Loaec, J., Globus, A., le Floch, M., Johannin, P., 1975. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on magnetization mechanisms in Ni-Zn ferrite. IEEE Trans. Magn., 11(5):1320-1322.

[15]Loaec, J., le Floch, M., Johannin, P., 1978. Effect of hydrostatic-pressure on susceptibility frequency spectrum of polycrystalline Mn-Zn and Ni-Zn ferrites. IEEE Trans. Magn., 14(5):915-917.

[16]McGinnis, T., Henze, C.P., Conroy, K., 2007. Inductive Power System for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles. OCEANS, 1-5:736-740.

[17]Papastergiou, K.D., Macpherson, D.E., 2007a. An airborne radar power supply with contactless transfer of energy-Part I: rotating transformer. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 54(5):2874-2884.

[18]Papastergiou, K.D., Macpherson, D.E., 2007b. An airborne radar power supply with contactless transfer of energy-Part II: converter design. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 54(5):2885-2893.

[19]Papastergiou, K.D., Macpherson, D.E., 2008. Air-Gap Effects in Inductive Energy Transfer. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 1-10:4092-4097.

[20]Ryu, M., Cha, H., Park, Y., Baek, J., 2005. Analysis of the Contactless Power Transfer System Using Modelling and Analysis of the Contactless Transformer. 31st Annual Conf. of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 1-3:1036-1042.

[21]Si, P., Hu, A.P., Malpas, S., Budgett, D., 2008. A frequency control method for regulating wireless power to implantable devices. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circ. Syst., 2(1):22-29.

[22]Stielau, O.H., Covic, G.A., 2000. Design of Loosely Coupled Inductive Power Transfer Systems. Proc. Int. Conf. on Power System Technology, p.85-90.

[23]Villa, J.L., Sallan, J., Llombart, A., Sanz, J.F., 2009. Design of a high frequency inductively coupled power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge. Appl. Energy, 86(3):355-363.

[24]Wang, C.S., Covic, G.A., Stielau, O.H., 2004. Power transfer capability and bifurcation phenomena of loosely coupled inductive power transfer systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 51(1):148-157.

[25]Wang, J., Witulski, A.F., Vollin, J.L., Phelps, T.K., Cardwell, G.I., 1999. Derivation, Calculation and Measurement of Parameters for a Multi-Winding Transformer Electrical Model. 14th Annual Applied Power Electronics Conf. and Exposition, p.220-226.

[26]Yoshioka, D., Sakamoto, H., Ishihara, Y., Matstumoto, T., Timischl, F., 2007. Power feeding and data-transmission system using magnetic coupling for an ocean observation mooring buoy. IEEE Trans. Magn., 43(6):2663-2665.

[27]Zhang, N., Wang, Z.L., Fang, X., 2008. Piezoimpedane and pressure sensors with NiZn ferrite device. Sens. Actuat. A, 147(2):504-507.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE