Full Text:   <2589>

CLC number: TM4

On-line Access: 2011-02-08

Received: 2010-01-26

Revision Accepted: 2010-05-28

Crosschecked: 2010-12-12

Cited: 1

Clicked: 7943

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 2011 Vol.12 No.2 P.116-123


Waveform feature monitoring scheme for transformer differential protection

Author(s):  Bahador Fani, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan, Hosein Askarian Abyaneh

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding email(s):   fani@ec.iut.ac.ir

Key Words:  Transformer differential protection, Differential current waveform, Inrush current, Fault current, Waveform feature, Waveform processing

Bahador Fani, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan, Hosein Askarian Abyaneh. Waveform feature monitoring scheme for transformer differential protection[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 2011, 12(2): 116-123.

@article{title="Waveform feature monitoring scheme for transformer differential protection",
author="Bahador Fani, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan, Hosein Askarian Abyaneh",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science C",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Waveform feature monitoring scheme for transformer differential protection
%A Bahador Fani
%A Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan
%A Hosein Askarian Abyaneh
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C
%V 12
%N 2
%P 116-123
%@ 1869-1951
%D 2011
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.C1010042

T1 - Waveform feature monitoring scheme for transformer differential protection
A1 - Bahador Fani
A1 - Mohamad Esmail Hamedani Golshan
A1 - Hosein Askarian Abyaneh
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science C
VL - 12
IS - 2
SP - 116
EP - 123
%@ 1869-1951
Y1 - 2011
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.C1010042

We propose a new scheme for transformer differential protection. This scheme uses different characteristics of the differential currents waveforms (DCWs) under internal fault and magnetizing inrush current conditions. The scheme is based on choosing an appropriate feature of the waveform and monitoring it during the post-disturbance instants. For this purpose, the signal feature is quantified by a discrimination function (DF). Discrimination between internal faults and magnetizing inrush currents is carried out by tracking the signs of three decision-making functions (DMFs) computed from the DFs for three phases. We also present a new algorithm related to the general scheme. The algorithm is based on monitoring the second derivative sign of DCW. The results show that all types of internal faults, even those accompanied by the magnetizing inrush, can be correctly identified from the inrush conditions about half a cycle after the occurrence of a disturbance. Another advantage of the proposed method is that the fault detection algorithm does not depend on the selection of thresholds. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm does not require burdensome computations.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Al-Othman, A.K., El-Naggar, K.M., 2009. A new digital dynamic algorithm for detection of magnetizing inrush current in transformers. Electr. Power Compon. Syst., 37(4):355-372.

[2]Bi, D.Q., Zhang, X.A., Yang, H.H., Yu, G.W., Wang, X.H., Wang, W.J., 2007. Correlation analysis of waveforms in nonsaturation zone-based method to identify the magnetizing inrush in transformer. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 22(3):1380-1385.

[3]Ge, B.M., de Almeida, A.T., Zheng, Q.L., Wang, X.H., 2005. An equivalent instantaneous inductance-based technique for discrimination between inrush current and internal faults in power transformers. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 20(4):2473-2482.

[4]Giuliante, A., Clough, G., 1991. Advances in the Design of Differential Protection for Power Transformers. Proc. Georgia Technical Protective Relaying Conf., p.1-12.

[5]Guzman, A., Zocholl, S., Benmouryal, G., Altuve, H.J., 2001. A current-based solution for transformer differential protection-part I: problem statement. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 16(4):485-491.

[6]Hamedani Golshan, M.E., Samet, H., 2006. A new differential protection algorithm base on rising rate variation of second harmonic current. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. B Eng., 30:643-654.

[7]Hamedani Golshan, M.E., Saghaian-nejad, M., Saha, A., Samet, H., 2004. A new method for recognizing internal faults from inrush current conditions in digital differential protection of power transformers. Electr. Power Syst. Res., 71(1):61-71.

[8]He, B., Zhang, X., Bo, Z.Q., 2006. A new method to identify inrush current based on error estimation. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 21(3):1163-1168.

[9]Kang, Y.C., Won, S.H., Kang, S.H., Crossley, P.A., 2004. A Transformer Differential Relay with a Core Saturation Detection Algorithm. 8th IEE Int. Conf. on Developments in Power System Protection, p.368-371.

[10]Kang, Y.C., Lee, B.E., Kang, S.H., 2007. Transformer protection relay based on the induced voltages. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 29(4):281-289.

[11]Kilic, E., Ozgonenel, O., Usta, O., Thomas, D., 2009. PCA based protection algorithm for transformer internal faults. Turk. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., 17(2):125-149.

[12]Kulidjian, A., Kasztenny, B., Campbell, B., 2001. New Magnetizing Inrush Restraining Algorithm for Power Transformer Protection. IEE Int. Conf. on Developments in Power System Protection, p.181-184.

[13]Lin, X., Liu, P., Malik, O.P., 2002. Studies for identification of the inrush based on improved correlation algorithm. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 17(4):901-906.

[14]Liu, P., Malik, O.P., Chen, D., Hope, G.S., Guo, Y., 1992. Improved operation of differential protection of power transformers for internal faults. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 7(4):1912-1918.

[15]Lu, Z., Tang, W.H., Ji, T.Y., Wu, Q.H., 2009. A morphological scheme for inrush identification in transformer protection. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 24(2):560-568.

[16]Ma, X., Shi, J., 2000. A new method for discrimination between fault and magnetizing inrush current using HMM. Electr. Power Syst. Res., 56(1):43-49.

[17]Ozgonenel, O., 2006. Wavelet based ANN approach for transformer protection. Int. J. Comput. Intell., 2(3):161-168.

[18]Ozgonenel, O., Thomas, D.W.P., Christopoulos, C., 2007. TLM modeling of transformer with internal short circuit faults. Int. J. Comput. Math. Electr. Electron. Eng., 26(5):1304-1323.

[19]Ozgonenel, O., Kilic, E., Khan, A., Rahman, M.A., 2008. A new method for fault detection and identification of incipient faults in power transformers. Electr. Power Compon. Syst., 36(11):1226-1244.

[20]Samantaray, S.R., Panigrahi, B.K., Dash, P.K., Panda, G., 2007. Power transformer protection using S-transform with complex window and pattern recognition approach. IET Gener. Transm. Distr., 1(2):278-286.

[21]Shin, M.C., Park, C.W., Kim, J.H., 2003. Fuzzy logic-based for large power transformer protection. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 18(3):718-724.

[22]Sidhu, T.S., Sachdev, M.S., 1992. On line identification of magnetizing inrush and internal faults in three phase transformers. IEEE Trans. Power Del., 7(4):1885-1890.

[23]Spiegel, M.R., Stephens, L.J., 2008. Theory and Problems of Statistics (4th Ed.). Schaum Publishing Co., New York.

[24]Tripathy, M., Maheshwari, R.P., Verma, H.K., 2008. Radial basis probabilistic neural network for differential protection of power transformer. IET Gener. Transm. Distr., 2(1):43-52.

[25]Zhang, H., Wen, J.F., Malik, O.P., 2002. Discrimination between fault and magnetizing inrush current in transformers using short-time correlation transform. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., 24(7):557-562.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


mortaza saghaian@prof.<msaghaian@yahoo.com>

2011-03-20 16:04:58

Congratulations excellent work.

Anonymous@No address<No mail>

2011-03-08 21:57:51

In general it is a very well organized paper.

Anonymous@No address<No mail>

2011-03-08 21:54:49

This is a useful and timely paper

Anonymous@No address<No mail>

2011-03-08 21:53:40

I loved the simplicity of the concepts exposed in the paper in addition the proposed algorithm is easy to applied in the industry.

Congratulations for your paper!

Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE