Full Text:   <2885>

CLC number: TN918

On-line Access: 2012-08-02

Received: 2011-12-19

Revision Accepted: 2012-03-29

Crosschecked: 2012-07-06

Cited: 12

Clicked: 4395

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 2012 Vol.13 No.8 P.624-634

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.C1100374


Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G.723.1 bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis


Author(s):  Song-bin Li, Huai-zhou Tao, Yong-feng Huang

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   lisb@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, yfhuang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Key Words:  Steganalysis, Quantization index modulation (QIM), G.723.1, Codeword distribution characteristics


Share this article to: More <<< Previous Article|

Song-bin Li, Huai-zhou Tao, Yong-feng Huang. Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G.723.1 bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 2012, 13(8): 624-634.

@article{title="Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G.723.1 bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis",
author="Song-bin Li, Huai-zhou Tao, Yong-feng Huang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science C",
volume="13",
number="8",
pages="624-634",
year="2012",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.C1100374"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G.723.1 bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis
%A Song-bin Li
%A Huai-zhou Tao
%A Yong-feng Huang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C
%V 13
%N 8
%P 624-634
%@ 1869-1951
%D 2012
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.C1100374

TY - JOUR
T1 - Detection of quantization index modulation steganography in G.723.1 bit stream based on quantization index sequence analysis
A1 - Song-bin Li
A1 - Huai-zhou Tao
A1 - Yong-feng Huang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science C
VL - 13
IS - 8
SP - 624
EP - 634
%@ 1869-1951
Y1 - 2012
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.C1100374


Abstract: 
This paper presents a method to detect the quantization index modulation (QIM) steganography in g.723.1 bit stream. We show that the distribution of each quantization index (codeword) in the quantization index sequence has unbalanced and correlated characteristics. We present the designs of statistical models to extract the quantitative feature vectors of these characteristics. Combining the extracted vectors with the support vector machine, we build the classifier for detecting the QIM steganography in g.723.1 bit stream. The experiment shows that the method has far better performance than the existing blind detection method which extracts the feature vector in an uncompressed domain. The recall and precision of our method are all more than 90% even for a compressed bit stream duration as low as 3.6 s.

open peer comments open peer comments open peer comments open peer comments open peer comments

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Avcibas, I., 2006. Audio steganalysis with content-independent distortion measure. IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 13(2):92-95.

[2]Chang, C.C., Lin, C.J., 2001. LIBSVM: a Library for Support Vector Machines. Available from http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~cjlin/libsvm [Accessed on May 9, 2011].

[3]Chen, B., Wornell, G.W., 2001. Quantization index modulation: a class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 47(4):1423-1443.

[4]Hafiz, M., 2008. Steganalysis of QIM Steganography Using Irregularity Measure. Proc. 10th ACM Workshop on Multimedia and Security, p.149-158.

[5]Hafiz, M., 2010. Statistical Modeling of Footprints of QIM Steganography. IEEE Int. Conf. on Multi-media and Expo, p.1487-1492.

[6]Hafiz, M., Subbalakshmi, K.P., Chandramouli, R., 2008. Nonparametric steganalysis of QIM data hiding using approximate entropy. SPIE, 6819:681914.

[7]Huang, Y., Xiao, B., 2008. Implementation of Covert Communication Based on Steganography. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, p.1512-1515.

[8]Huang, Y., Tang, S., Zhang, Y., 2011a. Detection of covert voice-over Internet protocol communications using sliding window-based steganalysis. IET Commun., 5(7):929-936.

[9]Huang, Y., Tang, S., Bao, C., Yip, Y.J., 2011b. Steganalysis of compressed speech to detect covert voice over Internet protocol channels. IET Inf. Secur., 5(1):26-32.

[10]ITU-T, 1996a. ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1: Dual Rate Speech Coder for Multimedia Communications Transmitting at 5.3 and 6.3 kbit/s. ITU-T, Geneva.

[11]ITU-T, 1996b. ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1-Annex A: Silence Compression Scheme for G.723.1. ITU-T, Geneva.

[12]Krätzer, C., Dittmann, J., Vogel, T., Hillert, R., 2006. Design and Evaluation of Steganography for Voice-Over-IP. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems, p.2397-2400.

[13]Li, X., Yu, H.H., 2000. Transparent and Robust Audio Data Hiding in Cepstrum Domain. IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, p.397-400.

[14]Liu, Q., Sung, A.H., Qiao, M., 2009. Temporal derivative-based spectrum and mel-cepstrum audio steganalysis. IEEE Trans. Inf. Forens. Secur., 4(3):359-368.

[15]Lu, Z.M., Yan, B., Sun, S.H., 2005. Watermarking combined with CELP speech coding for authentication. IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., E88-D(2):330-334.

[16]Mazurczyk, W., Szczypiorski, K., 2008. Steganography of VoIP Streams. Proc. 3rd Int. Symp. on Information Security, p.1001-1018.

[17]Tan, L., Wu, B., Liu, Z., Zhou, M., 2010. An audio information hiding algorithm with high-capacity which based on chaotic and wavelet transform. Acta Electron. Sin., 38(8):1812-1824 (in Chinese).

[18]Thomas, Q.F., 2002. Discrete-Time Speech Signal Processing: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall PTR, NJ, USA, p.45-60.

[19]Tian, H., Zhou, K., Jiang, H., Huang, Y., Liu, J., Feng, D., 2009. An Adaptive Steganography Scheme for Voice Over IP. Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems, p.2921-2925.

[20]Wang, C.T., Chen, T.S., Chao, W.H., 2004. A New Audio Watermarking Based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform of MPEG/Audio Layer III. Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Networking, Sensing and Control, p.265-277.

[21]Wang, F.H., Jain, L.C., Pan, J.S., 2007. VQ-based watermarking scheme with genetic codebook partition. J. Network Comput. Appl., 30(1):4-23.

[22]Wu, Q., Li, W., Yu, X.Y., 2009. Revisit Steganalysis on QIM-Based Data Hiding. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, p.929-932.

[23]Wu, S., Huang, J., Huang, D., 2005. Efficiently self-synchronized audio watermarking for assured audio data transmission. IEEE Trans. Broadcast., 51(1):69-76.

[24]Xiao, B., Huang, Y., Tang, S., 2008. An Approach to Information Hiding in Low Bit-Rate Speech Stream. Proc. IEEE Global Communications Conf., p.1940-1944.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE