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Bio-Design and Manufacturing  2022 Vol.5 No.1 P.107-132

http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-021-00135-6


The emerging technology of biohybrid micro-robots: a review


Author(s):  Zening Lin, Tao Jiang & Jianzhong Shang

Affiliation(s):  Department of Intelligent Machinery and Instrument, College of Intelligence Science and Technology, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   jiangtao@nudt.edu.cn, jz_shang_nudt@163.com

Key Words:  Biohybrid robots, Living cells, Actuator materials, Structure, Control methodologies


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Zening Lin, Tao Jiang & Jianzhong Shang . The emerging technology of biohybrid micro-robots: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science D, 2022, 5(1): 107-132.

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Abstract: 
In the past few decades, robotics research has witnessed an increasingly high interest in miniaturized, intelligent, and integrated robots. The imperative component of a robot is the actuator that determines its performance. Although traditional rigid drives such as motors and gas engines have shown great prevalence in most macroscale circumstances, the reduction of these drives to the millimeter or even lower scale results in a significant increase in manufacturing difficulty accompanied by a remarkable performance decline. biohybrid robots driven by living cells can be a potential solution to overcome these drawbacks by benefiting from the intrinsic microscale self-assembly of living tissues and high energy efficiency, which, among other unprecedented properties, also feature flexibility, self-repair, and even multiple degrees of freedom. This paper systematically reviews the development of biohybrid robots. First, the development of biological flexible drivers is introduced while emphasizing on their advantages over traditional drivers. Second, up-to-date works regarding biohybrid robots are reviewed in detail from three aspects: biological driving sources, actuator materials, and structures with associated control methodologies. Finally, the potential future applications and major challenges of biohybrid robots are explored.

国防科大蒋涛、尚建忠&林泽宁 |新兴的生物混合微型机器人技术综述

本综述论文聚焦新兴生物混合微型机器人技术的回顾。在过去几十年里,机器人学的研究见证了研究人员对小型化、智能化和集成化机器人日益浓厚的兴趣。驱动器是决定机器人性能的关键部件。虽然传统的刚性驱动器(如发动机和内燃机)在大多数宏观环境中已经表现出很大的普及性,但这些驱动器减少到毫米甚至更低尺寸时会导致制造难度的显著增加,同时性能显著下降。由活细胞驱动的生物混合机器人可以利用活组织固有的微尺度进行自组装并实现高能效,成为克服这些缺点的潜在解决方案。此外,生物混合机器人还具有灵活性、自我修复甚至多个自由度等特点。本文系统地回顾了生物混合机器人的发展历程。首先,介绍了生物柔性驱动器的发展历程,强调了生物柔性驱动器相对于传统驱动器的优势。其次,从生物驱动源、驱动器材料、结构与相关的控制方法三个方面对生物混合机器人的最新研究成果进行了详细的综述。最后,文章展望了生物混合机器人的潜在应用前景和面临的主要挑战。

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