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CLC number: TP391.4

On-line Access: 2019-08-05

Received: 2017-10-12

Revision Accepted: 2018-03-16

Crosschecked: 2019-07-03

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1338

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Muhammad Imran

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1147-3159

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Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2019 Vol.20 No.7 P.946-963

http://doi.org/10.1631/FITEE.1700667


A block-based secure and robust watermarking scheme for color images based on multi-resolution decomposition and de-correlation


Author(s):  Muhammad Imran, Bruce A. Harvey, Muhammad Atif, Adnan Ali Memon

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee 32306, USA; more

Corresponding email(s):   mi14@my.fsu.edu, bharvey@fsu.edu, mohammad.atif@buitms.edu.pk, adnan.ali@buitms.edu.pk

Key Words:  Copyright protection, Data hiding, Multi-resolution decomposition, De-correlation, Security


Muhammad Imran, Bruce A. Harvey, Muhammad Atif, Adnan Ali Memon. A block-based secure and robust watermarking scheme for color images based on multi-resolution decomposition and de-correlation[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2019, 20(7): 946-963.

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Abstract: 
This paper presents a block-based secure and robust watermarking technique for color images based on multi-resolution decomposition and de-correlation. The principal objective of the presented scheme is to simultaneously meet all the four requirements (robustness, security, imperceptibility, and capacity) of a good watermarking scheme. The contribution of this study is to basically achieve the four contradictory requirements that a good watermarking scheme must meet. To do so, different approaches are combined in a way that the four requirements are achieved. For instance, to obtain imperceptibility, the three color channels (red, green, and blue) are de-correlated using principal component analysis, and the first principal component (de-correlated red channel) is chosen for watermark embedding. Afterwards, to achieve robustness, the de-correlated channel is decomposed using a discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and the approximate band (the other three bands are kept intact to preserve the edge information) is further decomposed into distinct blocks. The random blocks are chosen based on a random generated key. The random selected blocks are further broken down into singular values and vectors. Based on the mutual dependency on singular values and vectors’ matrices, the values are modified depending on the watermarking bits, and their locations are saved and used as another key, required when the watermark is to be extracted. Consequently, two-level authentication levels ensure the security, and using both singular values and vectors increases the capacity of the presented scheme. Moreover, the involvement of both left and right singular vectors along with singular values in the watermarking embedding process strengthens the robustness of the proposed scheme. Finally, to compare the presented scheme with the state-of-the-art schemes in terms of imperceptibility (peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity index), security (with numerous fake keys), robustness (normalized correlation and bit error rate), and capacity, the Gonzalez and Kodak datasets are used. The comparison shows significant improvement of the proposed scheme over existing schemes.

一种基于多分辨率分解和去相关的模块化安全性与鲁棒性彩色图像水印方案

摘要:提出一种基于多分辨率分解和去相关的模块化安全性与鲁棒性彩色图像水印方案。该方案主要目标是同时满足良好水印的4个要求(鲁棒性、安全性、不可察觉性和容量)。本研究的贡献在于实现一个基本满足这4个矛盾需求的水印方案。为此,结合不同方法以实现这个目的。例如,为获得不可察觉性,通过主成分分析去相关3个颜色(红绿蓝)通道,并选择第一个主成分(去相关红色通道)嵌入水印。为取得鲁棒性,采用离散小波变换(DWT)分解去相关信道,将近似带(其余3个带保持不变以保留边缘信息)进一步分解为不同区块。根据随机生成键选择随机区块。随机选取的区块进一步被分解为奇异值和向量。基于奇异值和向量矩阵的相互依赖性,并依据水印位,对数值进行修改,并保存这些数值的位置,将数值位置作为提取水印所需的另一个密钥。两级认证级别确保了安全性,同时使用奇异值和向量可提高该方案的容量。此外,在水印嵌入过程中,左右奇异向量与奇异值的结合增强了该方案的鲁棒性。最后,使用Gonzalez和Kodak数据集,从不可察觉性(峰值信噪比和结构相似性指数)、安全性(带多个伪密钥)、鲁棒性(归一化相关和误码率)和容量方面将该方案与已有方案作比。结果显示本文方案与现有方案相比有明显改进。

关键词:版权保护;数据隐藏;多分辨率分解;去相关;安全性

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