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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 1998 Vol.-1 No.-1 P.


Four development stages of collective intelligence

Author(s):  Renbin XIAO

Affiliation(s):  School of Artificial Intelligence and Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   rbxiao@hust.edu.cn

Key Words:  Collective intelligence, Meta-synthesis of wisdom, Incompatibility, Labor division, Cooperative behavior, Collective intelligence emergence, Large language model

Renbin XIAO. Four development stages of collective intelligence[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 1998, -1(-1): .

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Research on the new generation of artificial intelligence (AI) initiated by Chinese scholars conforms to the needs of the new information environment and tries to progress traditional artificial intelligence (AI 1.0) to a new stage of AI 2.0. As one of the important components of AI, collective intelligence (CI) 1.0, i.e., swarm intelligence, is developing to the stage of CI 2.0 (crowd intelligence). Through in-depth analysis and informative argumentation, it is found that an incompatibility exists between CI 1.0 and CI 2.0. Therefore, CI 1.5 is introduced to build a bridge between the above two stages, which is based on bio-collaborative behavioral mimicry. CI 1.5 is the transition from CI 1.0 to CI 2.0, which contributes to the compatibility of the two stages. Then, a new interpretation of the meta-synthesis of wisdom proposed by Qian Xuesen is given. The meta-synthesis of wisdom, as an improvement of crowd intelligence, is an advanced stage of bionic intelligence, i.e., CI 3.0. It is pointed out that the two-wheel drive of large language models and big data with deep uncertainty is an evolutionary path from CI 2.0 to CI 3.0, and some expounding is made. As a result, we proposed four developmental stages (CI 1.0, CI 1.5, CI 2.0, and CI 3.0), which form a complete framework for the development of CI. These different stages are progressively improved and have good compatibility. Due to the dominant role of cooperation in the developmental stages of CI, three types of cooperation in CI are discussed: indirect regulatory cooperation in lower organisms, direct communicative cooperation in higher organisms, and shared intention-based collaboration in humans. labor division is the main form of achieving cooperation and, for this reason, this paper investigates the relationship between the complexity of behavior and types of labor division. Finally, based on the overall understanding of the four development stages of collective intelligence, the future development direction and research issues of collective intelligence are explored.

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