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CLC number: TU241; TU98

On-line Access: 2016-05-04

Received: 2016-01-20

Revision Accepted: 2016-02-03

Crosschecked: 2016-04-07

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1489

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Xiao-yu Ying

http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5317-255X

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.5 P.378-388

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1600026


Developing planning indicators for outdoor wind environments of high-rise residential buildings


Author(s):  Xiao-yu Ying, Grace Ding, Xiao-jun Hu, Yin-qi Zhang

Affiliation(s):  Department of Architecture, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   yingxiaoyu@zucc.edu.cn

Key Words:  Outdoor wind environment, Planning indicators, Building cluster layout, High-rise building


Xiao-yu Ying, Grace Ding, Xiao-jun Hu, Yin-qi Zhang. Developing planning indicators for outdoor wind environments of high-rise residential buildings[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(5): 378-388.

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Abstract: 
The construction of a building may change the microclimate in the vicinity, and planning indicators in a master plan may directly affect the outdoor physical environmental quality in residential areas. An inappropriate plan for a site may accelerate wind and intensify vortexes over places on the pedestrian levels, which leads to an adverse outdoor environment. Therefore, the design of a cluster of buildings should not focus only on the buildings but also provide a good outdoor environment around the buildings. To tackle the problem of inadequate wind environment, the relationship between the building’s floor area ratio and height was identified in this study as the main planning indicator to be examined on its effects on the outdoor wind environment. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was hence developed to simulate the wind conditions generated by some typical site layouts with different values for planning indicators under relevant weather conditions, which were typical of those in Hangzhou, China. The simulated wind conditions are assessed using the wind speed ratio over the whole area of the building cluster at the pedestrian level. The effects on the local wind condition due to the varying of the planning indicators are discussed whilst considering the potential construction costs. The indicators resulting in better external conditions are highlighted in the conclusion as the recommendation which could be used as a rule of thumb by architects and planners at the master planning stage. The study disproves the common belief in the practice that a lower floor area ratio means fewer buildings and therefore greater external comfort. In fact, the higher the building, the greater the outdoor comfort wind zone for pedestrians. However, the increment in comfort area is limited to buildings extending from 25 to 30 levels.

室外风环境视角下的高层住宅项目规划指标研究

目的:确定建筑容积率、建筑密度和建筑层数之间的关系,并将其作为主要的规划指标,研究其对室外风环境的影响。
创新点:在以高层、高密度为特点的城市建设中,一个地块的用地规划指标可直接影响居住区的室外物理环境质量。一个高层建筑群的规划设计不应该只关注建筑物,还应考虑室外物理环境的品质。本研究从室外风环境角度出发,对13种"容积率-建筑密度-建筑层数"指标组合形成的高层建筑群布局进行对比,从而得到可直接服务于城市建设项目的规划策略。
方法:1. 通过确定建筑容积率、建筑密度和建筑层数之间的关系,建立三维高层建筑群布局模型,列出19种可能的指标组合(图2);2. 通过日照模拟分析工具Tarch和建筑消防间距计算筛选出13种符合当前规划要求的指标组合;3. 运用风环境模拟软件Phoenics,对13种指标组合形成的高层建筑群布局进行风环境模拟运算;利用图形分析软件Photoshop CS,计算出舒适风面积比值,并进行相互对比(图3和4);4. 根据土建造价对不同建筑群布局的总造价进行对比(图6)。
结论:在规划设计中,通常认为较低的容积率和较低的建筑高度意味着建筑体量较小,室外物理环境会更好。但是,本研究发现建筑层数越多、建筑高度越高,行人高度的室外舒适风区面积越大。不过,建筑层数从25层升到30层,舒适风区面积增加有限。加之考虑层数越高导致造价越高的因素,当面对容积率为2.0~4.0的高层地块时,不能简单地认为建筑层数最高的规划方案就是最好的方案。

关键词:室外风环境;规划指标;建筑群布局;高层建筑

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