Full Text:   <887>

Summary:  <167>

CLC number: TH137

On-line Access: 2018-12-03

Received: 2017-09-21

Revision Accepted: 2018-09-23

Crosschecked: 2018-11-10

Cited: 0

Clicked: 725

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Chun-bao Liu

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8265-2875

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2018 Vol.19 No.12 P.904-925

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1700508


Application of scale-resolving simulation to a hydraulic coupling, a hydraulic retarder, and a hydraulic torque converter


Author(s):  Chun-bao Liu, Jing Li, Wei-yang Bu, Zhi-xuan Xu, Dong Xu, Wen-xing Ma

Affiliation(s):  School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   liuchunbao@jlu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Scale-resolving simulation (SRS), Hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier–, Stokes (RANS)/large eddy simulation (LES), Hydraulic coupling, Hydraulic retarder, Hydraulic torque converter


Chun-bao Liu, Jing Li, Wei-yang Bu, Zhi-xuan Xu, Dong Xu, Wen-xing Ma. Application of scale-resolving simulation to a hydraulic coupling, a hydraulic retarder, and a hydraulic torque converter[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2018, 19(12): 904-925.

@article{title="Application of scale-resolving simulation to a hydraulic coupling, a hydraulic retarder, and a hydraulic torque converter",
author="Chun-bao Liu, Jing Li, Wei-yang Bu, Zhi-xuan Xu, Dong Xu, Wen-xing Ma",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="19",
number="12",
pages="904-925",
year="2018",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1700508"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Application of scale-resolving simulation to a hydraulic coupling, a hydraulic retarder, and a hydraulic torque converter
%A Chun-bao Liu
%A Jing Li
%A Wei-yang Bu
%A Zhi-xuan Xu
%A Dong Xu
%A Wen-xing Ma
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 19
%N 12
%P 904-925
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2018
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1700508

TY - JOUR
T1 - Application of scale-resolving simulation to a hydraulic coupling, a hydraulic retarder, and a hydraulic torque converter
A1 - Chun-bao Liu
A1 - Jing Li
A1 - Wei-yang Bu
A1 - Zhi-xuan Xu
A1 - Dong Xu
A1 - Wen-xing Ma
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 19
IS - 12
SP - 904
EP - 925
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2018
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1700508


Abstract: 
The paper describes the qualification and validation of large eddy simulation (LES) and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier–;Stokes (RANS)/LES, the so-called scale-resolving simulation (SRS) approaches, which are currently employed in transient simulations of internal flow for fluid machineries. Firstly, the application of various turbulence models in ANSYS FLUENT is briefly introduced to acquire the external performance of three hydrokinetic devices and to compare it with experimental data. It was found that a remarkable improvement in external performance was achieved. The best results could be as low as 4% for the absolute error in hydraulic coupling, 2%–5% for the error for the hydraulic retarder, and 2%–4% for the hydraulic torque converter. Basically, all models had better error levels than that of around 10%–15% obtained by RANS. Then four typical SRS simulations were applied to conduct numerical simulations of the internal flow fields for hydraulic coupling, the hydraulic retarder, and the hydraulic torque converter. The results provided two indisputable facts, firstly, that SRS models are more accurate in certain flow situations than RANS models and, secondly, that SRS models can give additional information compared with RANS simulations. Finally, the BSL SBES DSL model, a dynamic hybrid RANS/LES (DHRL) turbulence model, was applied to simulate and analyze the flow mechanism of the hydraulic coupling to deepen our understanding of it. The detailed flow structure in hydraulic coupling was determined and was used to understand the flow mechanism.

The paper under review describes the qualification and validation of Scale Resolving Simulations (i.e. CFD approaches based on either LES or Hybrid RANS/LES), in the field of fluid machineries. In particular, the paper deals with hydraulic couplings, retarders and torque converters. The authors were able to obtain reasonable performance prediction of their investigated hydraulic turbomachines and to better understand the flow structures inside. The simulations were assessed against available experimental data. The authors have evidenced the improvement with respect to previous RANS simulations.

尺度解析模拟在液力偶合器、液力缓速器和液力变矩器中的应用

目的:针对流体机械数值模拟过程中雷诺时均应力(RANS)方法占据主导地位但预测精度较低且缺乏对流场信息准确描述的现状,提出应用尺度解析模拟(SRS)方法来改进性能的预测精度以及加深对流动结构的理解.
创新点:1. 利用SRS方法,降低RANS湍流模型的选择困难,实现性能精准预测; 2. 建立全流道网格计算模型,充分展现单流道间瞬时流动信息的差异.
方法:1. 通过较少的网格划分及周期计算,对具有简单循环圆和平面叶片的液力偶合器进行计算,并与试验数据进行对比,初步筛选出较为适合的湍流模型(图6),进而在模型更为复杂、流动更加多变的液力缓速器和液力变矩器性能预测中进行验证(图15和21); 2. 通过对复杂的瞬态流动现象的清晰捕捉,深入展示3种液力元件的内部流动机理(图9、10、16、17、22和23),并评估SRS方法相较RANS方法在流动结构描述方面的先进性(图7和8).
结论:1. 在液力偶合器、液力缓速器和液力变矩器等液力流体机械的计算流体动力学(CFD)模拟中,SRS方法可以提高性能预测精度并提供更为细致的流场信息; 2. SRS方法中的混合RANS/LES(大涡模拟)模型在液力元件流场计算中的预测准确度、流场结构描述及计算成本等方面表现出色,尤其是BSL SBES DSL模型值得重点关注和发展; 3. 为了进一步验证SRS方法的实用性,可以在模拟中考虑工作介质物理属性的影响,细化网格并对气液两相流动及边界层流动进行详细计算.

关键词:尺度解析模拟;混合RANS/LES;液力偶合器;液力缓速器;液力变矩器

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Andersson S, 1986. Analysis of multi-element torque converter transmissions. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 28(7):431-441.

[2]Bai L, Fiebig M, Mitra NK, 1997. Numerical analysis of turbulent flow in fluid couplings. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 119(3):569-576.

[3]Denton JD, 1986. The use of a distributed body force to simulate viscous effects in 3D flow calculations. Proceedings of ASME 1986 International Gas Turbine Conference and Exhibit, p.V001T01A058.

[4]Denton JD, 2010. Some limitations of turbomachinery CFD. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, p.735-745.

[5]Duchaine F, Maheu N, Moureau V, et al., 2013. Large-eddy simulation and conjugate heat transfer around a low-Mach turbine blade. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition, p.V03BT11A004.

[6]Ejiri E, Kubo M, 1999. Influence of the flatness ratio of an automotive torque converter on hydrodynamic performance. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 121(3):614-620.

[7]Flack R, Brun K, 2003. Fundamental analysis of the secondary flows and jet-wake in a torque converter pump: part 2— flow in a curved stationary passage and combined flows. ASME/JSME 2003 4th Joint Fluids Summer Engineering Conference, p.1193-1201.

[8]Gourdain N, Sicot F, Duchaine F, et al., 2014. Large eddy simulation of flows in industrial compressors: a path from 2015 to 2035. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 372(2022):20130323.

[9]Gritskevich MS, Garbaruk AV, Menter FR, 2014. Computation of wall bounded flows with heat transfer in the framework of SRS approaches. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 572(1):012057.

[10]Hampel U, Hoppe D, Diele KH, et al., 2005. Application of gamma tomography to the measurement of fluid distributions in a hydrodynamic coupling. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 16(2-3):85-90.

[11]He YD, Ma WX, Liu CB, 2009a. Numerical simulation on CFD of flow field in hydrodynamic coupling and characteristics prediction. Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, p.1-4.

[12]He YD, Ma WX, Liu CB, 2009b. Numerical simulation and characteristic calculation of hydrodynamic coupling. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 40(5):24-28 (in Chinese).

[13]Hedman A, 1992. Analysis of transmissions with multi-turbine hydrodynamic torque converters. Mechanism and Machine Theory, 27(5):543-554.

[14]Hu DF, Huang ZL, Sun JY, et al., 2017. Numerical simulation of gas-liquid flow through a 90° duct bend with a gradual contraction pipe. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 18(5):212-224.

[15]Huang JG, Li CY, 2013. Whole-flow-passage numerical simulation and experimental validation on idling loss of hydrodynamic retarder. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 29(24):56-62 (in Chinese).

[16]Huitenga H, Mitra NK, 2000a. Improving startup behavior of fluid couplings through modification of runner geometry: part I–fluid flow analysis and proposed improvement. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 122(4):683-688.

[17]Huitenga H, Mitra NK, 2000b. Improving startup behavior of fluid couplings through modification of runner geometry: part II–modification of runner geometry and its effects on the operation characteristics. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 122(4):689-693.

[18]Ji SM, Ge JQ, Tan DP, 2017. Wall contact effects of particle-wall collision process in a two-phase particle fluid. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 18(3):958-973.

[19]Johnston JP, 1998. Effects of system rotation on turbulence structure: a review relevant to turbomachinery flows. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, 4(2):97-112.

[20]Jung JH, Kang S, Hur N, 2011. A numerical study of a torque converter with various methods for the accuracy improvement of performance prediction. Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, 11(3-4):261-268.

[21]Kim BS, Ha SB, Lim WS, et al., 2008. Performance estimation model of a torque converter part I: correlation between the internal flow field and energy loss coefficient. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 9(2):141-148.

[22]Lakshminarayana B, 1991. An assessment of computational fluid dynamic techniques in the analysis and design of turbomachinery—the 1990 freeman scholar lecture. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 113(3):315-352.

[23]Lee C, Jang W, Lee JM, et al., 2000. Three Dimensional Flow Field Simulation to Estimate Performance of a Torque Converter. SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1146, SAE International.

[24]Lei YL, Wang C, Liu ZJ, et al., 2012. Analysis of the full flow field of torque converter. Advanced Materials Research, 468-471:674-677.

[25]Li XS, Yu XM, Cheng XS, et al., 2012. Large eddy simulation and characteristic prediction of transient two-phase flow for hydraulic retarder. Journal of Jiangsu University (Natural Science Edition), 33(4):385-389 (in Chinese).

[26]Liu CB, Ma WX, Zhu XL, 2010. 3D transient calculation of internal flow field for hydrodynamic torque converter. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 46(14):161-166 (in Chinese).

[27]Liu CB, Xu D, Ma WX, et al., 2015a. Analysis of unsteady rotor-stator flow with variable viscosity based on experiments and CFD simulations. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, 68(12):1351-1368.

[28]Liu CB, Liu CS, Ma WX, 2015b. RANS, detached eddy simulation and large eddy simulation of internal torque converters flows: a comparative study. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 9(1):114-125.

[29]Liu Y, Pan YX, Liu CB, 2007. Numerical analysis on three-dimensional flow field of turbine in torque converter. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 20(2):94-96.

[30]Menzies K, 2009. Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 367(1899):2827-2838.

[31]Park JI, Cho KR, 1998. Numerical flow analysis of torque converter using interrow mixing model. JSME International Journal Series B, 41(4):847-854.

[32]Schulz H, Greim R, Volgmann W, 1996. Calculation of three-dimensional viscous flow in hydrodynamic torque converters. Journal of Turbomachinery, 118(3):578-589.

[33]Shieh T, Perng C, Chu D, et al., 2000. Torque Converter Analytical Program for Blade Design Process. SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1145, SAE International.

[34]Shin S, Chang H, Athavale M, 1999. Numerical Investigation of the Pump Flow in an Automotive Torque Converter. SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1056, SAE International.

[35]Song B, Lü JG, Guo SY, et al., 2011. Simulation and characteristic analysis on flow field of fluid couplings during braking. Machine Design and Research, 27(1):26-30 (in Chinese).

[36]Sun Z, Chew J, Fomison N, et al., 2009. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in industrial fluid couplings. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 223(9):2049-2062.

[37]Tucker P, Eastwood S, Klostermeier C, et al., 2012a. Hybrid LES approach for practical turbomachinery flows–part I: hierarchy and example simulations. Journal of Turbomachinery, 134(2):021023.

[38]Tucker P, Eastwood S, Klostermeier C, et al., 2012b. Hybrid LES approach for practical turbomachinery flows–part II: further applications. Journal of Turbomachinery, 134(2):021024.

[39]Tucker PG, 2011a. Computation of unsteady turbomachinery flows: part 1—progress and challenges. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47(7):522-545.

[40]Tucker PG, 2011b. Computation of unsteady turbomachinery flows: part 2—LES and hybrids. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47(7):546-569.

[41]Tucker PG, 2013. Trends in turbomachinery turbulence treatments. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 63(6):1-32.

[42]Tyacke J, Tucker P, Jefferson-Loveday R, et al., 2014. Large eddy simulation for turbines: methodologies, cost and future outlooks. Journal of Turbomachinery, 136(6):061009.

[43]Wang XB, Liu Y, Cui HQ, et al., 2012. Experimental study on the fluid flow characteristics in the hydrocyclone on the PIV. Fluid Machinery, 40(2):5-9 (in Chinese).

[44]Whitfield A, Wallace FJ, Sivalingam R, 1978. A performance prediction procedure for three element torque converters. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 20(12):801-814.

[45]Wu GQ, Yan P, 2008. System for torque converter design and analysis based on CAD/CFD integrated platform. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 21(4):35-39.

[46]Wu GQ, Wang LJ, 2015. Multi-objective Optimization employing genetic algorithm for the torque converter with dual-blade stator. SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1119, SAE International.

[47]Wu HX, Tan D, Miorini RL, et al., 2011. Three-dimensional flow structures and associated turbulence in the tip region of a waterjet pump rotor blade. Experiments in Fluids, 51(6):1721-1737.

[48]Yan J, He R, Lu M, 2009. Numerical simulation of hydraulic retarder with different blade number. Journal of Jiangsu University (Natural Science Edition), 30(1):27-31 (in Chinese).

[49]Yang ZY, 2015. Large-eddy simulation: past, present and the future. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 28(1):11-24.

[50]Zhang TT, Huang W, Wang ZG, et al., 2016. A study of airfoil parameterization, modeling, and optimization based on the computational fluid dynamics method. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 17(3):632-645.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE