Full Text:   <347>

Suppl. Mater.: 

CLC number: 

On-line Access: 2019-05-06

Received: 2018-10-22

Revision Accepted: 2019-04-07

Crosschecked: 2019-04-11

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1371

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Alfrendo Satyanaga


Harianto Rahardjo


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2019 Vol.20 No.5 P.368-374


Measurement of a soil-water characteristic curve and unsaturated permeability using the evaporation method and the chilled-mirror method

Author(s):  Alfrendo Satyanaga, Harianto Rahardjo, Zhe Hao Koh, Haneena Mohamed

Affiliation(s):  School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

Corresponding email(s):   chrahardjo@ntu.edu.sg

Key Words:  Evaporation method, Dew point method, Soil-water characteristic curve, Unsaturated permeability

Alfrendo Satyanaga, Harianto Rahardjo, Zhe Hao Koh, Haneena Mohamed. Measurement of a soil-water characteristic curve and unsaturated permeability using the evaporation method and the chilled-mirror method[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2019, 20(5): 368-374.

@article{title="Measurement of a soil-water characteristic curve and unsaturated permeability using the evaporation method and the chilled-mirror method",
author="Alfrendo Satyanaga, Harianto Rahardjo, Zhe Hao Koh, Haneena Mohamed",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Measurement of a soil-water characteristic curve and unsaturated permeability using the evaporation method and the chilled-mirror method
%A Alfrendo Satyanaga
%A Harianto Rahardjo
%A Zhe Hao Koh
%A Haneena Mohamed
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 20
%N 5
%P 368-374
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1800593

T1 - Measurement of a soil-water characteristic curve and unsaturated permeability using the evaporation method and the chilled-mirror method
A1 - Alfrendo Satyanaga
A1 - Harianto Rahardjo
A1 - Zhe Hao Koh
A1 - Haneena Mohamed
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 20
IS - 5
SP - 368
EP - 374
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1800593

Fredlund and Rahardjo indicated that the behavior of unsaturated soil is significantly dependent on its soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC). There are many conventional methods for determining SWCC. Tempe and pressure plate apparatuses are commonly utilized in the laboratory to measure it. A Tempe cell is used to generate SWCC up to 100 kPa since it is provided with 1 bar high air-entry disc. A pressure plate cell (provided with a 5 or 15 bar high air-entry ceramic disc) is used to establish SWCC at suction ranges from 100 to 1500 kPa in combination with SWCC tests using the Tempe cell. These methods are known to be reliable for SWCC determination; however, they are tedious and time consuming.

The manuscript deals with a topic of considerable interest to geotechnical engineers who encounter problems that involve unsaturated soils. The Authors attempt to address one of the key concerns related to the measurement and use of soil-water characteristic curves, SWCC, namely, the length of time required for the laboratory measurement of the relationship between the amount of water in the soil and soil suction. The study involves the testing of three soil mixes with slight differences in their air-entry values. The manuscript is of interest to the geotechnical engineering profession.


目的:综合使用HYPROP和WP4C两种仪器,探索 采用蒸发法和冷镜露点法测量大吸力范围的水-土特征曲线,并采用收缩曲线对土体变形进行修正.
方法:1. 采用HYPROP仪器,在0~100 kPa吸力范围内测量土体的水-土特征曲线. 2. 当吸力大于600 kPa时,采用WP4C仪器,测量土体的水-土特征曲线. 3. 采用传统张力仪吸力板仪器,在0~500 kPa吸力范围内测量土体的水-土特征曲线. 4. 采用Satyanaga et al. (2017)公式,对实验数据进行拟合. 5. 采用HYPROP仪器直接测量土体的非饱和渗透系数. 6. 采用蒸发法,获取干缩曲线.
结论:1. 采用Satyanaga et al. (2017)公式,对实验数据进行拟合,拟合参数直接关联到进气值、拐点及方差.拟合结果显示,不同仪器所收集的水-土特征曲线的数据相互吻合,为水-土特征曲线的实验测量提供了更大的吸力范围. 2. 采用HYPROP仪器测量的非饱和渗透系数和采用传统改装的非饱和三轴实验数据基本吻合,因此,HYPROP可以 作为在低吸力范围内(<100 kPa)测量非饱和渗透系数的有效仪器. 3. 当进气值小于100 kPa 或者大于500 kPa时,综合采用HYPROP和WP4C可以有效缩短实验周期.

关键词:蒸发法;露点法;水-土特征曲线;非饱和渗透 系数

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), 2002. Standard Test Methods for Determination of the Soil Water Characteristic Curve for Desorption Using a Hanging Column, Pressure Extractor, Chilled Mirror Hygrometer, and/or Centrifuge. ASTM D6836-02, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.

[2]Cai GQ, Zhao CG, Li J, et al., 2014. A new triaxial apparatus for testing soil water retention curves of unsaturated soils under different temperatures. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 15(5):364-373.

[3]Childs EC, Collis-George N, 1950. The permeability of porous materials. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 201(1066):392-405.

[4]Fredlund DG, 2007. Slope stability hazard management systems. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 8(11):1695-1711.

[5]Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H, 1993. Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils. Wiley, New York, USA.

[6]Fredlund DG, Xing A, 1994. Equations for the soil-water characteristic curve. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31(3):521-532.

[7]Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H, Fredlund MD, 2012. Unsaturated Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, USA.

[8]Fredlund MD, Wilson GW, Fredlund DG, 2002. Representation and estimation of the shrinkage curve. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, p.145-149.

[9]Gallage C, Kodikara J, Uchimura T, 2013. Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity functions of two unsaturated sandy soils during drying and wetting processes. Soils and Foundations, 53(3):417-430.

[10]Huang SY, Fredlund DG, Barbour SL, 1998. Measurement of the coefficient of permeability for a deformable unsaturated soil using a triaxial permeameter. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(3):426-432.

[11]Kassim A, Gofar N, Lee LM, et al., 2012. Modeling of suction distributions in an unsaturated heterogeneous residual soil slope. Engineering Geology, 131-132:70-82.

[12]Leong EC, Tripathy S, Rahardjo H, 2003. Total suction measurement of unsaturated soils with a device using the chilled-mirror dew-point technique. Géotechnique, 53(2):173-182.

[13]Mantri S, Bulut R, 2014. Evaluating performance of a chilled mirror device for soil total suction measurements. Proceedings of Geo-Hubei 2014 International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure.

[14]Merayyan SM, Miller CJ, 2006. Determination of the soil-water characteristic curve using the evaporation technique. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils.

[15]Peters A, Durner W, 2008. Simplified evaporation method for determining soil hydraulic properties. Journal of Hydrology, 356(1-2):147-162.

[16]Peters A, Iden SC, Durner W, 2015. Revisiting the simplified evaporation method: identification of hydraulic functions considering vapor, film and corner flow. Journal of Hydrology, 527:531-542.

[17]Priono, Rahardjo H, Chatterjea K, et al., 2017. Laboratory investigation on hydraulic anisotropy behavior of unsaturated soil. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 54(7):1034-1046.

[18]Rahardjo H, Satyanaga A, D’Amore GAR, et al., 2012. Soil-water characteristic curves of gap-graded soils. Engineering Geology, 125:102-107.

[19]Rahardjo H, Satyanaga A, Mohamed H, et al., 2019. Comparison of soil–water characteristic curves from conventional testing and combination of small-scale centrifuge and dew point methods. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 37(2):659-672.

[20]Samingan AS, Leong EC, Rahardjo H, 2003. A flexible wall permeameter for measurements of water and air coefficients of permeability of residual soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 40(3):559-574.

[21]Samingan AS, Leong EC, Rahardjo H, 2005. Estimating permeability functions of Singapore residual soils. Engineering Geology, 78(1-2):119-133.

[22]Satyanaga A, Rahardjo H, Zhai Q, 2017. Estimation of unimodal water characteristic curve for gap-graded soil. Soils and Foundations, 57:789-801.

[23]Schindler U, 1980. Ein schnellverfahren zur messung der wasserleitfähigkeit im teilgesättigten boden an stechzylinderproben. Archiv für Acker-und Pflanzenbau und Bodenkunde, 24(1):1-7 (in German).

[24]Schindler U, Durner W, von Unold G, et al., 2010a. The evaporation method: extending the measurement range of soil hydraulic properties using the air-entry pressure of the ceramic cup. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173(4):563-572.

[25]Schindler U, Durner W, von Unold G, et al., 2010b. Evaporation method for measuring unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils: extending the measurement range. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74(4):1071-1083.

[26]Schindler U, Doerner J, Mueller L, 2015. Simplified method for quantifying the hydraulic properties of shrinking soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 178(1):136-145.

[27]Vanapalli SK, Garga VK, Brisson P, 2007. A modified permeameter for determination of unsaturated coefficient of permeability. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 25(2):191-202.

[28]Wind GP, 1968. Capillary conductivity data estimated by a simple method. In: Rijtema PE, Wassink H (Eds.), Water in the Unsaturated Zone. IASH, Gentbrugge, Belgium, p.19-23.

[29]Zhai Q, Rahardjo H, Satyanaga A, et al., 2017. Effect of bimodal soil-water characteristic curve on the estimation of permeability function. Engineering Geology, 230:142-151.

[30]Zhan LT, Chen P, Ng CWW, 2007. Effect of suction change on water content and total volume of an expansive clay. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 8(5):699-706.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE