Full Text:   <303>

Summary:  <139>

CLC number: TU352

On-line Access: 2019-11-08

Received: 2019-04-29

Revision Accepted: 2019-09-26

Crosschecked: 2019-10-10

Cited: 0

Clicked: 494

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Chen Yan

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6910-0320

Xi-mei Zhai

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3358-0481

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2019 Vol.20 No.11 P.823-837

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.A1900172


Numerical study on the dynamic response of a massive liquefied natural gas outer tank under impact loading


Author(s):  Chen Yan, Xi-mei Zhai, Yong-hui Wang

Affiliation(s):  Key Lab of Structures Dynamic Behavior and Control of the Ministry of Education, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   xmzhai@hit.edu.cn

Key Words:  Liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank, Impact, Dynamic response, Numerical simulation, Failure mechanism


Chen Yan, Xi-mei Zhai, Yong-hui Wang. Numerical study on the dynamic response of a massive liquefied natural gas outer tank under impact loading[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2019, 20(11): 823-837.

@article{title="Numerical study on the dynamic response of a massive liquefied natural gas outer tank under impact loading",
author="Chen Yan, Xi-mei Zhai, Yong-hui Wang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="20",
number="11",
pages="823-837",
year="2019",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1900172"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Numerical study on the dynamic response of a massive liquefied natural gas outer tank under impact loading
%A Chen Yan
%A Xi-mei Zhai
%A Yong-hui Wang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 20
%N 11
%P 823-837
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2019
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1900172

TY - JOUR
T1 - Numerical study on the dynamic response of a massive liquefied natural gas outer tank under impact loading
A1 - Chen Yan
A1 - Xi-mei Zhai
A1 - Yong-hui Wang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 20
IS - 11
SP - 823
EP - 837
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2019
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1900172


Abstract: 
In this paper, the dynamic response of a typical 160 000 m3 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prestressed concrete outer tank under impact loading is investigated. The applicability of the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (HJC) material model of concrete and numerical simulation method on impact that is proposed in this paper is verified by the test results of concrete slabs under projectile impact cited from the reference. A detailed finite element (FE) model of the LNG outer tank, including walls, buttresses, domes, beams, and bottom plates, under the impact of a Tomahawk cruise missile is established. In addition, pre-stress on the wall, impact angles, locations, and velocities are considered and their influence on dynamic response studied. The impact damage types for the LNG outer tank are concluded according to dynamic response results including stress, displacement, stress sweep range, and energy, and critical impact velocities to distinguish these damage types are also determined. In addition, the damage types and their failure mechanism are analyzed by the damage factor proposed in this paper, which is based on energy propagation. Finally, four empirical formulas of impact loading recommended by the standard “accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities” are used for checking the impact resistance performance of the LNG outer tank and compared with FE numerical simulation results. It is demonstrated, by using empirical formulas, that the common 160 000 m3 LNG outer concrete tank could suffer flange impact loading. However, all the four empirical results were more conservative compared to numerical results under the same missile perforation velocity.

This paper presents a study on the dynamic response of a massive LNG tank under impact load of a missile. The study uses a FE model to verify the modelling approach based on experimental tests and to, subsequently, assess the response of the tank under impact load. The study has some interesting aspects and through a parametric study it provides also some design criteria in the end.

大型液化天然气储罐在冲击荷载下的动力响应数值研究

目的:研究冲击荷载各参数对于液化天然气(LNG)储罐的动力响应结果,定义LNG储罐受到冲击荷载时的破坏模式,并分析不同破坏模式下的破坏机理,为工程防御冲击荷载提供有效的理论研究基础.
创新点:1. 建立精细化的LNG储罐有限元模型; 2. 定义LNG储罐在冲击荷载下的破坏模式并揭示其破坏机理; 3. 提出损伤因子Df可区分三种冲击破坏模式.
方法:1. 通过有限元模拟,进行冲击荷载的参数分析,得到不同冲击荷载对于LNG储罐的动力响应(图6和7); 2. 根据数值模拟结果,定义LNG储罐受到冲击荷载时的破坏模式(图8),并分析其破坏机理(图10和11); 3. 通过经验公式验算LNG储罐抵御冲击荷载的可靠性.
结论:1. LNG储罐薄弱部位为外罐和环梁及底板的连接部位; 2. LNG储罐受到冲击荷载的破坏模式分为局部变形、混凝土剥落和穿透三种;本研究得到了各种破坏模式下的破坏机理,并定义了损伤因子Df来区分三种破坏模式; 3. 通过经验公式验算,LNG储罐可以抵御英国规范建议的冲击荷载和法兰的冲击;DOE-standard公式计算结果最为保守.

关键词:LNG储罐;冲击;动力响应;数值模拟;破坏机理

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Adhikary SD, Li B, Fujikake K, 2015. Low velocity impact response of reinforced concrete beams: experimental and numerical investigation. International Journal of Protective Structures, 6(1):81-111.

[2]American Petroleum Institute, 2008. Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-pressure Storage Tanks, API STANDARD 620. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, USA.

[3]Beckmann B, Hummeltenberg A, Weber T, et al., 2011. Concrete under high strain rates: local material and global structure response to impact loading. International Journal of Protective Structures, 2(3):283-293.

[4]Beppu M, Miwa K, Itoh M, et al., 2008. Damage evaluation of concrete plates by high-velocity impact. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 35(12):1419-1426.

[5]British Standards Institution, 1993. Flat-bottomed, Vertical, Cylindrical Storage Tanks for Low Temperature Service, BS7777-4:1993. British Standards Institution, London, UK.

[6]Chen QS, Wegrzyn J, Prasad V, 2004. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks. Cryogenics, 44(10):701-709.

[7]Christovasilis IP, Whittaker AS, 2008. Seismic analysis of conventional and isolated LNG tanks using mechanical analogs. Earthquake Spectra, 24(3):599-616.

[8]Daudeville L, Malécot Y, 2011. Concrete structures under impact. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 15(S1):101-140.

[9]Dong J, Deng GQ, Yang KZ, et al., 2005. Damage effect of thin concrete slabs subjected to projectile impact. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 24(4):713-720 (in Chinese).

[10]Dong LS, Zhang SM, 1996. Design of LPG and LNG tanks in Japan. Oil & Gas Storage and Transportation, 15(5):51-53 (in Chinese).

[11]European Committee for Standardization, 2006. Design and Manufacture of Site Built, Vertical, Cylindrical, Flat-bottomed Steel Tanks for the Storage of Refrigerated, Liquefied Gases with Operating Temperatures Between 0 °C and −165 °C, Part 1: General, EN 14620-1:2006. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.

[12]Forquin P, Erzar B, 2010. Dynamic fragmentation process in concrete under impact and spalling tests. International Journal of Fracture, 163(1-2):193-215.

[13]Graczyk M, Moan T, 2008. A probabilistic assessment of design sloshing pressure time histories in LNG tanks. Ocean Engineering, 35(8-9):834-855.

[14]Holmquist TJ, Johnson GR, Cook WH, 1993. A computational constitutive model for concrete subjected to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures. Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Ballistics, p.591-600.

[15]Hu F, Wu H, Fang Q, et al., 2017. Impact performance of explosively formed projectile (EFP) into concrete targets. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 109:150-166.

[16]Iqbal MA, Rai S, Sadique MR, et al., 2012. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 243:321-335.

[17]Johnson GR, Cook WH, 1983. A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, p.541-547.

[18]Karim MR, Fatt MS, 2005. Impact of the Boeing 767 aircraft into the world trade center. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 131(10):1066-1072.

[19]Lee DH, Kim MH, Kwon SH, et al., 2007. A parametric sensitivity study on LNG tank sloshing loads by numerical simulations. Ocean Engineering, 34(1):3-9.

[20]Li JG, Zheng JH, Li H, et al., 2013. Verifying calculations of local effect of flying object impact on concrete outer tank of full containment LNG storage tank. Petroleum Engineering Construction, 39(4):30-33 (in Chinese).

[21]Li QM, Reid SR, Wen HM, et al., 2005. Local impact effects of hard missiles on concrete targets. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 32(1-4):224-284.

[22]Liu J, Wu CQ, Su Y, et al., 2018. Experimental and numerical studies of ultra-high performance concrete targets against high-velocity projectile impacts. Engineering Structures, 173:166-179.

[23]Malvar LJ, Crawford JE, Wesevich JW, et al., 1997. A plasticity concrete material model for DYNA3D. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 19(9-10):847-873.

[24]Murray YD, 2007. Users Manual for LS-DYNA Concrete Material Model 159. FHWA-HRT-05-062, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, USA.

[25]Omika Y, Fukuzawa E, Koshika N, et al., 2005. Structural responses of world trade center under aircraft attacks. Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(1):6-15.

[26]Prabhakar G, Ranjan R, Mini KP, et al., 2003. Analysis of aircraft impact on containment structure. Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Shock & Impact Loads on Structures, p.315-322.

[27]Rahman IA, Zaidi AMA, Bux Q, et al., 2010. Review on empirical studies of local impact effects of hard missile on concrete structures. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, 1(1):73-98.

[28]Rajput A, Iqbal MA, 2017. Impact behavior of plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete targets. Materials & Design, 114:459-474.

[29]Ranjan R, Banerjee S, Singh RK, et al., 2014. Local impact effects on concrete target due to missile: an empirical and numerical approach. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 68:262-275.

[30]Rehacek S, Hunka P, Citek D, et al., 2015. Impact testing of concrete using a drop-weight impact machine. Advanced Materials Research, 1106:225-228.

[31]Sadique MR, Iqbal MA, Bhargava P, 2013. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 260:30-46.

[32]Tai YS, Tang CC, 2006. Numerical simulation: the dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete plates under normal impact. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 45(2):117-127.

[33]U.S. Department of Energy, 2006. Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities, DOE-STD-3014-2006. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, USA.

[34]Xu XZ, Ma TB, Ning JG, 2019. Failure mechanism of reinforced concrete subjected to projectile impact loading. Engineering Failure Analysis, 96:468-483.

[35]Yan C, Zhai XM, Wang YH, 2018. Numerical simulation of a large LNG concrete outer tank under impact loads. Journal of Harbin Engineering University, 39(9):1517-1525 (in Chinese).

[36]Zhai XM, Gao S, Fan F, 2014. Mechanical behavioral of LNG outer concrete tank under low temperature. Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, 46(4):7-12 (in Chinese).

[37]Zhai XM, Zhao XY, Wang YH, 2019. Numerical modeling and dynamic response of 160,000-m3 liquefied natural gas outer tank under aircraft impact. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 33(4):04019039.

[38]Zhang RF, Weng DG, Ren XS, 2011. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 10(2):253-262.

[39]Zhang T, Wu H, Fang Q, et al., 2017. UHP-SFRC panels subjected to aircraft engine impact: experiment and numerical simulation. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 109:276-292.

[40]Zhang T, Wu H, Huang T, et al., 2018. Penetration depth of RC panels subjected to the impact of aircraft engine missiles. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 335:44-53.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE