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Received: 2019-06-15

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Bio-Design and Manufacturing  2019 Vol.2 No.3 P.172–180

http://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-019-00043-w


Liquid-phase 3D bioprinting of gelatin alginate hydrogels: influence of printing parameters on hydrogel line width and layer height


Author(s):  Maha Alruwaili, Jose A. Lopez, Kevin McCarthy, Emmanuel G, Reynaud, Brian J. Rodriguez

Affiliation(s):  Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical ResearchUniversity College DublinDublinIreland; more

Corresponding email(s):   emmanuel.reynaud@ucd.ie, brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie

Key Words:  Gelatin alginate, Hydrogel, Additive manufacturing , 3D printing, 3D bioprinting, Biomaterials, Extrusion, Bioplotting


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Maha Alruwaili, Jose A. Lopez, Kevin McCarthy, Emmanuel G, Reynaud, Brian J. Rodriguez. Liquid-phase 3D bioprinting of gelatin alginate hydrogels: influence of printing parameters on hydrogel line width and layer height[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science D, 2019, 2(3): 172–180.

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Abstract: 
extrusion-based 3D bioprinting is a direct deposition approach used to create three-dimensional (3D) tissue scaffolds typically comprising hydrogels. hydrogels are hydrated polymer networks that are chemically or physically cross-linked. Often, 3D bioprinting is performed in air, despite the hydrated nature of hydrogels and the potential advantage of using a liquid phase to provide cross-linking and otherwise functionalize the hydrogel. In this work, we print gelatin alginate hydrogels directly into a cross-linking solution of calcium chloride and investigate the influence of nozzle diameter, distance between nozzle and surface, calcium chloride concentration, and extrusion rate on the dimensions of the printed hydrogel. The hydrogel layer height was generally found to increase with increasing extrusion rate and nozzle distance, according to the increased volume extruded and the available space, respectively. In addition, the hydrogel width was generally found to increase with decreasing nozzle distance and cross-linking concentration corresponding to confinement-induced spreading and low cross-linking regimes, respectively. Width/height ratios of ~ 1 were generally achieved when the nozzle diameter and distance were comparable above a certain cross-linking concentration. Using these relationships, biocompatible 3D multilayer structures were successfully printed directly into calcium chloride cross-linking solution.

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