Full Text:   <270>

Summary:  <121>

Suppl. Mater.: 

CLC number: 

On-line Access: 2024-04-16

Received: 2023-08-23

Revision Accepted: 2023-12-05

Crosschecked: 2024-04-16

Cited: 0

Clicked: 355

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714




-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2024 Vol.25 No.4 P.324-339


Influence of vibration on the lubrication effect of a splash-lubricated gearbox

Author(s):  Yi LIU, Kailin ZHANG, Shuai SHAO, Hongxu XIANG, Zhijian YE

Affiliation(s):  State Key Laboratory of Rail Transit Vehicle System, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China

Corresponding email(s):   kailinzhang_swjtu@126.com, swjtushaoshuai@163.com

Key Words:  Comprehensive lubrication evaluation, Churning loss, Moving reference system, Splash lubrication, Vibrational excitation, Gearbox

Yi LIU, Kailin ZHANG, Shuai SHAO, Hongxu XIANG, Zhijian YE. Influence of vibration on the lubrication effect of a splash-lubricated gearbox[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2024, 25(4): 324-339.

@article{title="Influence of vibration on the lubrication effect of a splash-lubricated gearbox",
author="Yi LIU, Kailin ZHANG, Shuai SHAO, Hongxu XIANG, Zhijian YE",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Influence of vibration on the lubrication effect of a splash-lubricated gearbox
%A Kailin ZHANG
%A Shuai SHAO
%A Hongxu XIANG
%A Zhijian YE
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 25
%N 4
%P 324-339
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2024
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A2300436

T1 - Influence of vibration on the lubrication effect of a splash-lubricated gearbox
A1 - Yi LIU
A1 - Kailin ZHANG
A1 - Shuai SHAO
A1 - Hongxu XIANG
A1 - Zhijian YE
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 25
IS - 4
SP - 324
EP - 339
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2024
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A2300436

In this study, we investigate the effect of rail vibrations on the lubrication and efficiency of a splash-lubricated gearbox; specifically, the gearbox of a rail-transit vehicle. A high-fidelity 3D numerical model of the gearbox in a moving reference system is described, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the gearbox with different vibration directions. The effects of rotational speed, oil-immersion depth, and different oil-injection volume rates on lubrication and efficiency are discussed. We propose a method of evaluating the internal lubrication condition of a splash-lubricated gearbox and quantitatively compare the effects of different operating parameters on lubrication and efficiency. Finally, our experiment to verify the feasibility of the simulation method is described. The results show that with vibration, the churning loss and oil supply for the bearings are significantly higher than those under static conditions. In addition, among different vibrational directions, lateral vibration has the greatest influence on the lubrication condition and efficiency of the gearbox. For the studied railway-vehicle gearbox, the best lubrication condition is achieved at a rotational speed of 1600 r/min and an oil-immersion depth of two times the tooth height (2.0h). Rotational speed is the operating parameter that has the most significant effect on the lubrication and efficiency of the gearbox.


结论:1.振动状态下,齿轮箱搅油损失和轴承供油量与静态下相比显著增大;2.在不同方向的振动中,横向振动载荷对齿轮箱润滑状况与效率的影响最大;3.对于所研究的轨道交通车辆齿轮箱,转速为1600 r/min、浸油深度为2倍齿高时润滑状态最佳;4.在各运行参数中,转速对齿轮箱的润滑与效率影响最为显著。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]ArisawaH, NishimuraM, ImaiH, et al., 2009. CFD simulation for reduction of oil churning loss and windage loss on aeroengine transmission gears. Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, p.63-72.

[2]ChenSW, MatsumotoS, 2016. Influence of relative position of gears and casing wall shape of gear box on churning loss under splash lubrication condition-some new ideas. Tribology Transactions, 59(6):993-1004.

[3]ConcliF, GorlaC, 2012. Analysis of the oil squeezing power losses of a spur gear pair by mean of CFD simulations. Proceedings of the ASME 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, p.177-184.

[4]ConcliF, GorlaC, 2014. A CFD analysis of the oil squeezing power losses of a gear pair. International Journal of Computational Methods and Experimental Measurements, 2(2):157-167.

[5]ConcliF, GorlaC, 2017. Numerical modeling of the churning power losses in planetary gearboxes: an innovative partitioning-based meshing methodology for the application of a computational effort reduction strategy to complex gearbox configurations. Lubrication Science, 29(7):‍455-474.

[6]ConcliF, MaccioniL, GorlaC, 2019. Lubrication of gearboxes: CFD analysis of a cycloidal gear set. WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences, 123(12):101-112.

[7]DaiY, XuL, ZhuX, et al., 2021. Application of an unstructured overset method for predicting the gear windage power losses. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, 15(1):130-141.

[8]DengXQ, WangSS, WangSK, et al., 2020. Lubrication mechanism in gearbox of high-speed railway trains. Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, 14(4):JAMDSM0054.

[9]FrosinaE, SenatoreA, AndreozziA, et al., 2018. Experimental and numerical analyses of the sloshing in a fuel tank. Energies, 11(3):682.

[10]GorlaC, ConcliF, StahlK, et al., 2013. Hydraulic losses of a gearbox: CFD analysis and experiments. Tribology International, 66:337-344.

[11]GuoD, ChenFC, LiuJ, et al., 2021. Theoretical and experimental study of oil churning resistance torque of high-speed gear pair. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 57(1):49-60 (in Chinese).

[12]HildebrandL, DanglF, SedlmairM, et al., 2022. CFD analysis on the oil flow of a gear stage with guide plate. Forschung im Ingenieurwesen, 86(3):395-408.

[13]HirtCW, NicholsBD, 1981. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries. Journal of Computational Physics, 39(1):201-225.

[14]HuXZ, LiPP, WuMG, 2019. Influence of the dynamic motion of a splash-lubricated gearbox on churning power losses. Energies, 12(17):3225.

[15]HuXZ, WangA, LiPP, et al., 2021. Influence of dynamic attitudes on oil supply for bearings and churning power losses in a splash lubricated spiral bevel gearbox. Tribology International, 159:106951.

[16]JiangYY, HuXZ, HongSJ, et al., 2019. Influences of an oil guide device on splash lubrication performance in a spiral bevel gearbox. Tribology International, 136:155-164.

[17]LiMM, WangY, ChenWF, et al., 2021. Temperature rise characteristics for angular-contact ball bearings with oil-air lubrication based on fluid-solid conjugate heat transfer. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 13(1):168781402199092.

[18]LiuH, LinkF, LohnerT, et al., 2019. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of geared transmissions with injection lubrication. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 233(21-22):7412-7422.

[19]LuFX, WangM, PanWB, et al., 2021. CFD-based investigation of lubrication and temperature characteristics of an intermediate gearbox with splash lubrication. Applied Sciences, 11(1):352.

[20]MaccioniL, ConcliF, 2020. Computational fluid dynamics applied to lubricated mechanical components: review of the approaches to simulate gears, bearings, and pumps. Applied Sciences, 10(24):8810.

[21]MastroneMN, ConcliF, 2021a. CFD simulation of grease lubrication: analysis of the power losses and lubricant flows inside a back-to-back test rig gearbox. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 297:104652.

[22]MastroneMN, ConcliF, 2021b. CFD simulations of gearboxes: implementation of a mesh clustering algorithm for efficient simulations of complex system’s architectures. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 16:12.

[23]ShaoS, ZhangKL, YaoY, et al., 2022. Investigations on lubrication characteristics of high-speed electric multiple unit gearbox by oil volume adjusting device. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 23(12):1013-1026.

[24]ShaoS, ZhangKL, YaoY, et al., 2023. Investigation of the sealing performance of the gearbox sealing system of high-speed trains. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, 46(1):63-73.

[25]WangB, NingB, ChenXB, et al., 2020. Research progress in churning losses of gear transmission. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 56(23):1-20 (in Chinese).

[26]WangCY, ZouCF, ZhuJY, et al., 2023. Numerical investigation of sloshing pressure distribution in a rectangular tank. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment, 237(1):108-119.

[27]WangJY, 2015. Analysis and Application of Oil Bath Lubrication Based on CFD. MS Thesis, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China(in Chinese).

[28]WangYZ, SongGH, NiuWT, et al., 2018. Influence of oil injection methods on the lubrication process of high speed spur gears. Tribology International, 121:180-189.

[29]YakhotV, OrszagSA, ThangamS, et al., 1992. Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique. Physics of Fluids A: Fluid Dynamics, 4(7):1510-1520.

[30]YinM, ChenX, DaiY, et al., 2021. Numerical and experimental investigation of oil-guiding splash lubrication in light helicopter’s reducers. Aerospace, 8(11):345.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE