Full Text:   <1655>

CLC number: X503

On-line Access: 

Received: 2007-12-24

Revision Accepted: 2008-01-17

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 17

Clicked: 3799

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2008 Vol.9 No.3 P.250~260


Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time

Author(s):  Jia-li SHENTU, Zhen-li HE, Xiao-e YANG, Ting-qiang LI

Affiliation(s):  MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhe@ufl.edu

Key Words:  Cadmium (Cd), Microbial activity, Microbial community, Soil

Jia-li SHENTU, Zhen-li HE, Xiao-e YANG, Ting-qiang LI. Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2008, 9(3): 250~260.

@article{title="Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time",
author="Jia-li SHENTU, Zhen-li HE, Xiao-e YANG, Ting-qiang LI",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time
%A Jia-li SHENTU
%A Zhen-li HE
%A Xiao-e YANG
%A Ting-qiang LI
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 9
%N 3
%P 250~260
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2008
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B0710630

T1 - Microbial activity and community diversity in a variable charge soil as affected by cadmium exposure levels and time
A1 - Jia-li SHENTU
A1 - Zhen-li HE
A1 - Xiao-e YANG
A1 - Ting-qiang LI
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 9
IS - 3
SP - 250
EP - 260
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2008
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B0710630

Effects of cadmium (Cd) on microbial biomass, activity and community diversity were assessed in a representative variable charge soil (Typic Aquult) using an incubation study. Cadmium was added as Cd(NO3)2 to reach a concentration range of 0~16 mg Cd/kg soil. soil extractable Cd generally increased with Cd loading rate, but decreased with incubation time. soil microbial biomass was enhanced at low Cd levels (0.5~1 mg/kg), but was inhibited consistently with increasing Cd rate. The ratio of microbial biomass C/N varied with Cd treatment levels, decreasing at low Cd rate (<0.7 mg/kg available Cd), but increasing progressively with Cd loading. soil respiration was restrained at low Cd loading (<1 mg/kg), and enhanced at higher Cd levels. soil microbial metabolic quotient (MMQ) was generally greater at high Cd loading (1~16 mg/kg). However, the MMQ is also affected by other factors. Cd contamination reduces species diversity of soil microbial communities and their ability to metabolize different C substrates. soils with higher levels of Cd contamination showed decreases in indicator phospholipids fatty acids (PLFAs) for Gram-negative bacteria and actinomycetes, while the indicator PLFAs for Gram-positive bacteria and fungi increased with increasing levels of Cd contamination.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Amann, R., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K.H., 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol. Rev., 59(11):143-149.

[2] Anderson, T.H., 1990. Application of eco-physiological quociente (qCO2 and Dq) on microbial biomasses from soils of different cropping histories. Soil Biol. Biochem., 22(2):251-255.

[3] Anderson, T.H., 1994. Physiological Analysis of Microbial Communities in Soil: Applications and Limitations. In: Ritz, K., Dighton, J., Giller, K.E. (Eds.), Beyond the Biomass: Compositional and Functional Analysis of Soil Microbial Communities. Wiley, Chichester, UK, p.67-76.

[4] Bååth, E., Díaz-Raviña, M., Bakken, L.R., 2005. Microbial biomass, community structure and metal tolerance of a naturally Pb-enriched forest soil. Microbial Ecol., 50(4):496-505.

[5] Barajas Aceves, M., Grace, C., Ansorena, J., Dendooven, L., Brookes, P.C., 1999. Soil microbial biomass and organic c in a gradient of zinc concentrations in soils around a mine spoil tip. Soil Biol. Biochem., 31(6):867-876.

[6] Brookes, P.C., 1995. The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 19(4):269-279.

[7] Brookes, P.C., Landman, A., Pruden, G., 1985. Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 17(6):837-842.

[8] Chander, K., Brookes, P.C., 1993. Residual effects of zinc, copper and nickel in sewage sludge on microbial biomass in a sandy loam. Soil Biol. Biochem., 25(9):1231-1239.

[9] Dai, J., Thierry, B., 2004. Influence of heavy metals on C and N mineralisation and microbial biomass in Zn-, Pb-, Cu- and Cd-contaminated soils. Appl. Soil Ecol., 25(2):99-109.

[10] Ekelund, F., Olsson, S., Johansen, A., 2003. Changes in the succession and diversity of protozoan and microbial populations in soil spiked with a range of copper concentrations. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35(11):1507-1516.

[11] Fernandes, S.A.P., Bettiol, W., Cerri, C.C., 2005. Effect of sewage sludge on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and soil enzymatic activity. Appl. Soil Ecol., 30(1):65-77.

[12] Findlay, R., 1996. The Use of Phospholipid Fatty Acids to Determine Microbial Community Structure. In: Akkermanns, A.D.L., Elsas, J.D., van de Bruijn, F. (Eds.), Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, Section 4, p.1-17.

[13] Fliessbach, A., Reber, H.H., 1992. Effects of Long-term Sewage Sludge Applications on Soil Microbial Parameters. In: Hall, J.E., Sauerbeck, D.R., L′Hermite, P. (Eds.), Effects of Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge on Soil Fertility, Plants and Animals. Document No. EUR14236. Office for Official Publications of the European Community, Luxembourg, p.184-292.

[14] Frostegård, A., Tunlid, A., Bååth, E., 1993a. Phospholipid fatty acid composition, biomass, and activity of microbial communities from two soil types experimentally exposed to different heavy metals. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59(11):3605-3617.

[15] Frostegård, A., Bååth, E., Tunlid, A., 1993b. Shifts in the structure of soil microbial communities in limed forests as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Soil Biol. Biochem., 25(6):723-730.

[16] Ghosh, A.K., Bhattacharyya, P., Pal, R., 2004. Effect of arsenic contamination on microbial biomass and its activities in arsenic contaminated soils of Gangetic West Bengal, India. Environ. Int., 30(4):491-499.

[17] Giller, K.E., Witter, E., McGrath, S.P., 1998. Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: A review. Soil Biol. Biochem., 30(10-11):1389-1414.

[18] Hiroki, M., 1992. Effects of heavy metal contamination on soil microbial population. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 38(1):141-147.

[19] Insam, H., Hutchinson, T.C., 1996. Effects of heavy metals on the metabolic quotient of the soil microflora. Soil Biol. Biochem., 28(4-5):691-694.

[20] James, W.O., 1993. Determination of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen by Semi-Automated Colorimetry. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Research and Development, USA.

[21] John, J.K., Max, M.H., Robert, L.T., 2003. Effects of heavy metal contamination and remediation on soil microbial communities in the vicinity of a zinc smelter as indicated by analysis of microbial community phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 38(1):65-71.

[22] José, L.M., Teresa, H., Aurelia, P., Carlos, G., 2002. Toxicity of cadmium to soil microbial activity: Effect of sewage sludge addition to soil on the ecological dose. Appl. Soil Ecol., 2(2):149-158.

[23] Kelly, J.J., Haggblom, M., Tate, R.L., 1999. Changes in soil microbial communities over time resulting from one time application of zinc: A laboratory microcosm study. Soil Biol. Biochem., 31(10):1455-1465.

[24] Konopka, A., Zakharova, T., Bischoff, M., Oliver, L., Nakatsu , C., Turco, R.F., 1999. Microbial biomass and activity in lead-contaminated soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65(5):2256-2259.

[25] Landi, L., Renella, G., Moreno, J.L., Falchini, L., Nannipieri, P., 2000. Influence of cadmium on the metabolic quotient, L-:D-glutamic acid respiration ratio and enzyme activity: Microbial biomass ratio under laboratory conditions. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 32(1):8-16.

[26] Lavelle, P., Spain, A.V., 2001. Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p.211-239.

[27] Leita, L., de Nobili, M., Muhlbachova, G., Mondini, C., Marchiol, L., Zerbi, G., 1995. Bioavailability and effects of heavy metals on soil microbial biomass survival during laboratory incubation. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 19(2-3):103-108.

[28] Li, Z.J., Xu, J.M., Tang, C.X., Wu, J.J., Muhammad, A., Wang, H.Z., 2006. Application of 16S rDNA-PCR amplification and DGGE fingerprinting for detection of shift in microbial community diversity in Cu-, Zn- and Cd-contaminated paddy soils. Chemosphere, 62(8):1374-1380.

[29] Ma, L.Q., Rao, G.N., 1997. Chemical fractionation of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc in contaminated soils. J. Environ. Qual. 26(1):259-264.

[30] Muhammad, A., Xu, J.M., Li, Z.J., Wang, H.Z., Yao, H.Y., 2005. Effects of lead and cadmium nitrate on biomass and substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial communities. Chemosphere, 60(4):508-514.

[31] Nelson, D.E., Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total Carbon, Organic and Organic Matter. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analyses. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Ed. American Society of Agronomy, Wisconsin, p.539-758.

[32] Nyitrai, P., Bóka, K., Gáspár, L., Sárvári, E., Lenti, K., Keresztes, A., 2003. Characterization of the stimulating effect of low-dose stressors in maize and bean seedlings. J. Plant Physiol., 160(10):1175-1183.

[33] Öhlingerhy, R., 1995. Soil Respiration by Titration. In: Schinner, F., Öhlingerhy, R., Kandeler, E., Margesin, R. (Eds.), Methods in Soil Biology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p.95-98.

[34] Palmborg, C., Nordgren, A., 1996. Partitioning the variation of microbial measurements in forest soil into heavy metal and substrate quality dependent parts by use of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistics. Soil Biol. Biochem., 28(6):711-720.

[35] Paul, E.A., Clear, F.E., 1996. Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, London, p.129-155.

[36] Rajaie, M., Karimian, N., 2006. Chemical forms of cadmium in two calcareous soil textural classes as affected by application of cadmium-enriched compost and incubation time. Geoderma, 136(3-4):533-541.

[37] Ranjard, L., Nazaret, S., Goubiere, F., Thioulouse, J., Linet, P., Richaume, A., 2000. A soil microscale study to reveal the heterogeneity of Hg(II) impact on indigenous bacteria by quantification of adapted phenotypes and analysis of community DANN fingerprints. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 31(2):107-115.

[38] Rasmussen, L.D., Sørensen, S.J., 2001. Effects of mercury contamination on the culturable heterotrophic, functional and genetic diversity of the bacterial community in soil. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 36(1):1-9.

[39] Renella, G., Mench, M., 2004. Hydrolase activity, microbial biomass and community structure in long-term Cd-contaminated soils. Soil Biol. Biochem., 36(3):443-451.

[40] Valsecchi, G., Gigliotti, C., 1995. Microbial biomass, activity, and organic matter accumulation in soils contaminated with heavy metals. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 20(4):253-259.

[41] van Ranst, E., Verloo, M., Demeyer, A., Pauwels, J.M., 1999. Manual for the Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory. Ghent University, Faculty Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, p.243.

[42] van Straalen, N.M., 2002. Assessment of soil contamination— A functional perspective. Biodegradation, 13(1):41-52.

[43] Wang, A.Y., John, C., David, E.C., 2004. Changes in metabolic and structural diversity of a soil bacterial community in response to cadmium toxicity. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 39(6):452-456.

[44] Wardle, D.A., 1992. A comparative assessment of factors which influence microbial biomass: Carbon and nitrogen levels in soils. Biol. Rev., 67(3):321-358.

[45] Widmer, F., Flieûbach, A., Laczkó, E., Schulze-Aurich, J., Zeyer, J., 2001. Assessing soil biological characteristics: A comparison of bulk soil community DNA-, PLFA- and Biologe-analyses. Soil Biol. Biochem., 33(7-8):1029-1036.

[46] Wu, J., Joergensen, R.G., 1990. Measurement of soil microbial biomass C by fumigation-extraction: An automated procedure. Soil Biol. Biochem., 22(8):1167-1169.

[47] Yang, Y.G., Liu, C.Q., Xu, L., Wu, P., Zhang, G.P., 2004. Effects of heavy metal contamination on microbial biomass and community structure in soils. Chin. J. Geochem., 23(4):319-328.

[48] Yao, H., He, Z., Wilson, M.J., Campbell, C.D., 2000. Microbial biomass and community structure in a sequence of soils with increasing fertility and changing land use. Microbial Ecol., 40:223-237.

[49] Zogg, G.P., Zak, D.R., Ringleberg, D.B., 1997. Compositional and functional shifts in microbial communities due to soil warming. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 61(4):475-481.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE