Full Text:   <784>

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CLC number: TP309; TP333

On-line Access: 2018-09-04

Received: 2016-11-23

Revision Accepted: 2017-03-23

Crosschecked: 2018-07-08

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1366

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Fang-ting Huang

http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7887-8735

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Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2018 Vol.19 No.7 P.847-863

10.1631/FITEE.1601652


Enhancing security of NVM-based main memory with dynamic Feistel network mapping


Author(s):  Fang-ting Huang, Dan Feng, Wen Xia, Wen Zhou, Yu-cheng Zhang, Min Fu, Chun-tao Jiang, Yu-kun Zhou

Affiliation(s):  Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan 430074, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   dfeng@hust.edu.cn

Key Words:  Non-volatile memory (NVM), Endurance, Wear leveling, Timing attack


Fang-ting Huang, Dan Feng, Wen Xia, Wen Zhou, Yu-cheng Zhang, Min Fu, Chun-tao Jiang, Yu-kun Zhou. Enhancing security of NVM-based main memory with dynamic Feistel network mapping[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2018, 19(7): 847-863.

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Abstract: 
As promising alternatives in building future main memory systems, emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies can increase memory capacity in a cost-effective and power-efficient way. However, NVM is facing security threats due to its limited write endurance: a malicious adversary can wear out the cells and cause the NVM system to fail quickly. To address this issue, several wear-leveling schemes have been proposed to evenly distribute write traffic in a security-aware manner. In this study, we present a new type of timing attack, remapping timing attack (RTA), based on information leakage from the remapping latency difference in NVM. Our analysis and experimental results show that RTA can cause three of the latest wear-leveling schemes (i.e., region-based start-gap, security refresh, and multi-way wear leveling) to lose their effectiveness in several days (even minutes), causing failure of NVM. To defend against such an attack, we further propose a novel wear-leveling scheme called the ‘security region-based start-gap (security RBSG)’, which is a two-stage strategy using a dynamic Feistel network to enhance the simple start-gap wear leveling with level-adjustable security assurance. The theoretical analysis and evaluation results show that the proposed security RBSG not only performs well when facing traditional malicious attacks, but also better defends against RTA.

基于Feistel动态网络映射的非易失存储内存安全增强方法

概要:作为构建未来主存系统的替代方案,新兴的非易失性存储器NVM(non-volatile memory)技术可用高能效和低开销方式提高内存容量。然而,非易失存储器有限的耐久性导致其面临安全威胁:若恶意攻击者持续对一小部分物理行进行写操作,整个系统会很快失效。为解决该问题,提出几个磨损均衡方案,以安全感知的方式将写负载均匀分布到整个内存空间。提出一种基于重映射时间差异信息泄露的时间探测攻击RTA(remapping timing attack)。分析和实验结果表明,RTA可攻击3种最新磨损均衡方案(例如,基于区域的start-gap、安全刷新和多路磨损均衡),使它们在很短时间内失效(例如,几天甚至几分钟)。为抵抗该攻击,提出一种新的磨损均衡方案,即基于安全区域的start-gap(security RBSG)。该方案采用动态Feistel网络的两级策略,利用可调节安全保障增强简单的start-gap。理论分析和评估结果表明,提出的安全RBSG方案不仅可以抵抗传统攻击,也可以很好地抵抗RTA。

关键词:非易失存储(NVM);耐久性;磨损均衡;时间攻击

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