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Received: 2017-09-25

Revision Accepted: 2017-12-25

Crosschecked: 2017-12-27

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Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Xin Liu

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3824-1726

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Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2017 Vol.18 No.12 P.1940-1971

http://doi.org/10.1631/FITEE.1700626


ONFS: a hierarchical hybrid file system based on memory, SSD, and HDD for high performance computers


Author(s):  Xin Liu, Yu-tong Lu, Jie Yu, Peng-fei Wang, Jie-ting Wu, Ying Lu

Affiliation(s):  School of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   xliu@cse.unl.edu, ytlu@nudt.edu.cn, yujie@nscc-tj.gov.cn, wangpf@nscc-tj.gov.cn, jwu@cse.unl.edu, ylu@cse.unl.edu

Key Words:  High performance computing, Hierarchical hybrid storage system, Distributed metadata management, Data migration


Xin Liu, Yu-tong Lu, Jie Yu, Peng-fei Wang, Jie-ting Wu, Ying Lu. ONFS: a hierarchical hybrid file system based on memory, SSD, and HDD for high performance computers[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2017, 18(12): 1940-1971.

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Abstract: 
With supercomputers developing towards exascale, the number of compute cores increases dramatically, making more complex and larger-scale applications possible. The input/output (I/O) requirements of large-scale applications, workflow applications, and their checkpointing include substantial bandwidth and an extremely low latency, posing a serious challenge to high performance computing (HPC) storage systems. Current hard disk drive (HDD) based underlying storage systems are becoming more and more incompetent to meet the requirements of next-generation exascale supercomputers. To rise to the challenge, we propose a hierarchical hybrid storage system, on-line and near-line file system (ONFS). It leverages dynamic random access memory (DRAM) and solid state drive (SSD) in compute nodes, and HDD in storage servers to build a three-level storage system in a unified namespace. It supports portable operating system interface (POSIX) semantics, and provides high bandwidth, low latency, and huge storage capacity. In this paper, we present the technical details on distributed metadata management, the strategy of memory borrow and return, data consistency, parallel access control, and mechanisms guiding downward and upward migration in ONFS. We implement an ONFS prototype on the TH-1A supercomputer, and conduct experiments to test its I/O performance and scalability. The results show that the bandwidths of single-thread and multi-thread &x2018;read&x2019;/&x2018;write&x2019; are 6-fold and 5-fold better than HDD-based Lustre, respectively. The I/O bandwidth of data-intensive applications in ONFS can be 6.35 times that in Lustre.

ONFS:面向高性能计算的基于内存、固态硬盘和磁盘的层次式混合文件系统

概要:随着超级计算机向Eflops规模快速发展和计算核数急剧增加,更大规模和更复杂的应用成为可能。大规模科学计算、新的工作流应用以及检查点操作均需要存储系统具有非常高的带宽和低延迟,这使得高性能存储系统面临严峻的技术挑战。当前基于磁盘的底层存储系统难以满足新一代Eflops超级计算机和应用的要求。为此,本文提出了基于计算结点内存、固态硬盘和磁盘的层次式混合存储系统ONFS(on-line and near-line file system)。它具有三个存储层次和统一的命名空间,支持可移植操作系统接口(portable operating system interface, POSIX)协议,可提供高带宽、低延迟和超大存储容量。本文详细分析了分布式元数据管理、内存借用和归还策略、数据一致性、并行访问控制,以及向下迁移和向上主动预迁移机制。在天河一号超级计算机上实现了ONFS原型系统,测试了I/O(input/output)性能和可扩展性。测试结果表明,单线程和多线程读/写性能比基于磁盘的Lustre分别高出6倍和5倍。与Lustre相比,运行在ONFS上的典型数据密集型应用可获得6.35倍的I/O加速。

关键词:高性能计算;层次式混合存储系统;分布式元数据管理;数据迁移

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