Full Text:   <2312>

CLC number: TB114.3; O224; O211.6

On-line Access: 

Received: 2006-12-19

Revision Accepted: 2007-01-05

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 9

Clicked: 3406

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2007 Vol.8 No.3 P.343~356


Reliability of power connections

Author(s):  BRAUNOVIC Milenko

Affiliation(s):  MB Interface, 5975 Place de l’ more

Corresponding email(s):   mbinterface@yahoo.com

Key Words:  Power connections, Deterioration mechanisms, Palliative measures

BRAUNOVIC Milenko. Reliability of power connections[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2007, 8(3): 343~356.

@article{title="Reliability of power connections",
author="BRAUNOVIC Milenko",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Reliability of power connections
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 8
%N 3
%P 343~356
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2007
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2007.A0343

T1 - Reliability of power connections
A1 - BRAUNOVIC Milenko
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 8
IS - 3
SP - 343
EP - 356
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2007
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2007.A0343

Despite the use of various preventive maintenance measures, there are still a number of problem areas that can adversely affect system reliability. Also, economical constraints have pushed the designs of power connections closer to the limits allowed by the existing standards. The major parameters influencing the reliability and life of Al-Al and Al-Cu connections are identified. The effectiveness of various palliative measures is determined and the misconceptions about their effectiveness are dealt in detail.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Atermo, R., 1973. A method for testing compressive relaxation in aluminum wire conductors. Wire J., (9):127.

[2] Bauer, C.L., Lessmann, G.G., 1976. Metal-joining methods. Annual Review of Materials Sci., 6(1):361-387.

[3] Bond, N., 1969. Aluminium contact surfaces in electrical transition interfaces. IEEE Trans. PMP, 5(2):104-111.

[4] Bonwitt, W.F., 1948. An experimental investigation of the electrical performance of bolted aluminium-to-copper connections. AIEE Trans., 67:1208.

[5] Boychenko, V.I., Dzektser, N.N., 1978. Busbar connections. Energiya, p.65 (in Russian).

[6] Braunovic, M., 1990. Fretting in Nickel-coated Aluminium Conductors. Proc. 15th ICEC, Montreal, p.461-471.

[7] Braunovic, M., 1992. Evaluation of different contact-aid compounds for aluminium-to-copper connections. IEEE Trans. CHMT, 15:216-224.

[8] Braunovic, M., 1999. Power Connections. In: Slade, P.G. (Ed.), Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, p.155-277.

[9] Braunovic, M., Marjanov, M., 1988. Thermoelastic ratcheting effect in bolted aluminium-to-aluminium connections. IEEE Trans. CHMT, 11(1):54-63.

[10] Braunovic, M., Gervais, P., 1990. Fretting Problems in Electrical Industry. Proc. 17th Inter-Ram, Hershey, p.356.

[11] Braunovic, M., Alexandrov, N., 1994. Intermetallic compounds in aluminium-to-copper electrical interfaces: Effect of temperature and electric current. IEEE Trans. CPMT, 17(Part A):78.

[12] Braunovic, M., Pomathiod, L., Bailon, J.P., 1977. The effect of surface segregation of Mg on the contact resistance of Al-0.5%Mg alloy. IEEE Trans. PHP, PHP-13(1):31-35.

[13] Bruel, J.F., Carballeira, A., 1986. Durabilité des Contacts Electriques en Aluminium. Proc. SEE, p.139.

[14] Gagnon, D., Braunovic, M., 2001. Fretting in copper-to-copper contacts under AC and DC current conditions. IEEE Trans. CPT, 24:378-383.

[15] Holm, R., 1967. Electric Contacts. Springer Verlag.

[16] Jackson, R.L., 1982. Electrical Performance of Aluminium/Copper Bolted Joints. Proceedings of Inst. Elec. Engineering, 129(Part C):177.

[17] Lefebre, J., Galand, J., Marsolais, R.M., 1990. Electrical contacts on nickel-plated aluminium: The state of the art. IEEE Trans. CHMT, 14(1):176-180.

[18] Lin, X.Y., Zhang, J.G., 2004. Dust Corrosion. 22nd ICEC, Seattle, p.255.

[19] Naybour, R.D., Farrell, T., 1973a. Connector for aluminiumcables: A study of the degradation mechanisms and design criteria for reliable connectors. IEEE Trans. PHP, PHP-9(1):30-36.

[20] Naybour, R.D., Farrell, T., 1973b. Degradation mechanisms of mechanical connectors on aluminum conductors. Proc. IEE, 120(2):273-280.

[21] Oberg, A., Olsson, K.E., 1992. The Influence of Contact Surface Preparation on the Performance of Copper and Aluminium Connectors. Proc. 16th ICEC, Loughborough, p.407.

[22] Sprecher, A.F., Mannan, S.L., Conrad, H., 1986. On the mechanisms for the electroplastic effect in metals. Acta Metallurgica, 34(7):1145-1162.

[23] Timsit, R., 1986. Interdiffusion at bimetallic electrical interfaces. IEEE Trans. CHMT, 9(1):106-116.

[24] Troitskii, O.A., 1985. Pressure shaping by the application of high energy. Mater. Science Eng., 75(1-2):37-50.

[25] Wallach, E.R., Davis, G.J., 1977. Mechanical properties of aluminium-copper solid phase welds. Metals Tech., (4):183-190.

[26] Wan, J.W., Gao, J.C., Lin, X.Y., Zhang, J.G., 1999. Water Soluble Salts and Their Effect of Electrical Contact Surfaces. Proc. Intl. Conf. Electric Contacts, Elect. Components and Their Applications, p.37-43.

[27] Williamson, J.B.P., 1968. Deterioration Processes in Electrical Contacts. Proc. 4th ICEC, Swansea, UK, p.30-34.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE