Full Text:   <4040>

CLC number: S19

On-line Access: 2008-01-06

Received: 2007-09-23

Revision Accepted: 2007-10-30

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 7

Clicked: 6574

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2008 Vol.9 No.3 P.366-372


Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals

Author(s):  Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU

Affiliation(s):  Department of Soil Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526 Owerri, Nigeria

Corresponding email(s):   uzomaonweremadu@yahoo.com

Key Words:  Bioavailability, Characterization, Heavy metals, Soil pollution, Wastewater

Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU. Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2008, 9(3): 366-372.

@article{title="Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals",
author="Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 9
%N 3
%P 366-372
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2008
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A072210

T1 - Physico-chemical characterization of a farmland affected by wastewater in relation to heavy metals
A1 - Emmanuel U. ONWEREMADU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 9
IS - 3
SP - 366
EP - 372
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2008
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A072210

This study investigated selected properties of soils affected by wastewater and its relationship with some heavy metals. A free survey technique involving target sampling was used in siting soil profile pits. Soil samples were collected based on horizon differentiation and analyzed using routine and special analytical techniques. Soil data were subjected to correlation analysis using SAS program. Results show that all heavy metals studied had values above critical limits in the polluted soils using known standards and that these biotoxic metals decreased with soil depths. Highly significant (P=0.01 and 0.05) relationships were established between investigated heavy metals and some soil properties, especially soil pH and organic matter. Further studies involving more edaphic properties, biotoxic metals and their bioaccessibility in crops growing on wastewater soils will surely enhance knowledge and management of these highly anthropogenically influenced soils of the study site.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Abdel Aziz, W.H., 1992. Study on Soil Pollution in El-Saff Region. M.Sc Thesis, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ., Egypt.

[2] Abdel-Ghani, N.T., Hefny, M., El-chaghaby, G.A.F., 2007. Removal of lead from aqueous solution using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4(1):67-73.

[3] Akamigbo, F.O.R., 2001. Soil Survey, Classification and Land Use of Wetland Soils in Nigeria. Invited Paper Presented at the 27th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Calabar, Nigeria.

[4] Aroh, J.E.K., 2003. Classification of the Ogoni Sands in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Proceeding of the 28th Annual Conference of Soil Science Society of Nigeria, p.355-361.

[5] ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry), 1992. Impact of Lead-contaminated Soil on Public Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Charles Xintaras, Sc.D.

[6] Babel, S., Opiso, E.M., 2007. Removal of Cr from synthetic wastewater by sorption into volcanic ash soil. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4:99-107.

[7] Banu, J.R., Kaliappan, S., Yeom, I.T., 2007. Treatment of domestic wastewater using unflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4(3):363-370.

[8] Benson, N.U., Ebong, G.A., 2006. Heavy metals in vegetables commonly grown in a tropical garden Ultisol. J. Sust. Trop. Agric. Res., 16:77-80.

[9] Body, P., Lagis, G., Dolan, P., Mulcahy, D., 1991. Environmental leads: A review. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control, 20:299-310.

[10] Carrasqueros Durán, A., Flores, I., Perozo, C., Pernalete, S., 2006. Immobilization of lead by vermicompost and its effect on white bean (Vigna sinensis var. Apure) uptake. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 3(3):203-212.

[11] Chen, Z.S., Lee, T.M., 1999. The Effects of Chemical Remediation Treatments on the Extractability of Cadmium and Lead in the Soil and the Uptake of Cadmium and Lead by Wheat Growing in Contaminated Soils. Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Conf. on Contaminants in the Soil Environment in the Australasia-Pacific Region. New Delhi, India.

[12] Clemente, R., Walker, D.T., Roig, A., Pilar Bernal, M., 1991. Heavy metal bioavailability in a soil affected by mineral sulphides contamination following the mine spillage at Aznalcólar (Spain). Biodegradation, 14(3):199-205.

[13] Desrosiers, K., Ingram, W., van Mate, A., 2006. TiO photocatalysis for Organics. Http://www.ceenve.Calpoly.edu/cota.enve.436.prjectttiles.TiO6/TiO2.organics.html

[14] Dumontet, S., Levesque, M., Mathur, S.P., 1990. Limited downward inigration of pollutant metals (Cu, Zu, Ni and Pb) in acidic Virgin peat soil near a metlter. Water, Air and Soil Pollut., 49:329-342.

[15] Egyptian Environmental Affair Agency, 1996. Lead Smelting in Egypt-baseline Study (Private Lead Smelters in Greater Cairo). Technical Cooperation Office for the Environment.

[16] Ekundayo, E.O., Fagbami, A.A., 1996. Land use/land cover and its association with soils of Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Int. J. Trop. Agric., 14:21-33.

[17] Elgala, A.M., Elsharaw, M.A.O., Elbordiny, M.M., 2003. Impact of sewage water used for irrigation on soil characteristics and heavy metals composition of some grown crops. Egypt J. Soil Sci., 43:405-419.

[18] El-Arby, A.M., Elbordiny, M.M., 2006. Impact of reused wastewater for irrigation on availability of heavy metals in sandy soils and their uptake by plants. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(2):106-111.

[19] El-Gendi, S.A., Badawy, S.H., Helal, M.I.D., 1997. Mobility of some heavy metals nutrients in sandy soil irrigated with sewage effluent. J. Agric. Sci. (mansoura), 22:3535-3552.

[20] Emteryd, O., 1989. Chemical and physical analysis of inorganic nutrients in plant, soil, water and air. Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci. Dep. Site Res. Stencil, 10:8-23.

[21] FAO (Food and Agriculture organization), 1976. Soil Survey Investigations for Irrigation. Soil Bull, Rome.

[22] FEPA (Federal Environmental Protection Agency), 1992. Effluent Limitation Guidelines in Nigeria for all Categories of Industries. FEPA, Abuja, Nigeria.

[23] Foth, H.D., 1984. Fundamentals of Soil Science (7th Ed.). John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[24] Gallardo-Lara, F., Azcon, M., Quesada, J.L., Polo, A., 1999. Photoavailability and extractability of copper and zinc in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes. J. Environ. Sci. Health., 34(6):1047-1064.

[25] Gee, G.W., Or, D., 2002. Particle Size Analysis. In: Dane, D.H., Topp, G.C. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4: Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Am., Book Series No. 5, ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, p.255-293.

[26] Giesler, R., Andersson, T., Lougren, L., Person, P., 2005. Phosphate sorption in aluminum- and iron-rich humus soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68:77-86.

[27] Grossman, R.B., Reinsch, T.G., 2002. Bulk Density and Linear Extensibility. In: Dane, J.H., Topp, G.C. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 4: Physical Methods. Soil Sci. Am., Book Series No. 5, ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, p.201-228.

[28] Gueu, S., Yao, B., Adouby, K., Ado, G., 2006. Heavy metals removal in aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from coconut shell and seed hull of the palm tree. J. Appl. Sci., 6:2789-2793.

[29] He, Z.L., Zhang, M.K., Calvert, D.V., Stoffella, P.J., Yang, X.E., Yu, S., 2004. Transport of heavy metals in surface runoff from vegetable and citrus fields. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68:1662-1669.

[30] Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H., 1992. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants (2nd Ed.). CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

[31] Kleinman, P.J.A., Sharpley, A.N., 2002. Estimating soil phosphorus sorption saturation from Mehlich-3 data. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 33(11&12):1825-1839.

[32] Li, M., Hue, N.V., Hussain, S.K.G., 1997. Changes in metal forms by organic amendments to Hawaii soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 28:381-394.

[33] Mbagwu, J.S.C., Lal, R., Scott, T.W., 1983. Physical properties of three soils of southern Nigeria. Soil Sci., 136:48-55.

[34] Moore, P.A., Daniel, T.C., Gilmour, J.T., Shreve, B.R., Edward, D.R., Wood, B.H., 1998. Decreasing metal runoff from poultry litter with aluminium sulfate. J. Environ. Qual., 27:92-99.

[35] Negra, C., Ross, D.S., Lansirotti, A., 2005. Oxidizing behaviour of soil manganese: Interactions among abundance, oxidation state and pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 69:87-95.

[36] Onweremadu, E.U., Asawalam, D.O., Ibe, A.E., 2007. Changes in soil properties following application of composted sludge on an Isohyperthermic Kandiudult. Res. J. Environ. Toxicol., 1(2):62-70.

[37] Peles, J., Brewer, S., Barrett, G., 1998. Heavy metal accumulation by old field plant species during recovery of sludge-treated ecosystems. The American Midland Naturalist, 140(2):245-251.

[38] Ra, J.S., Kim, S.D., Chang, N., An, K., 2007. Ecological health assessments based on whole effluent toxicity tests and the index of biological integrity in temperate streams influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents. Enviorn. Toxicol. Chem., 26(9):2010-2018.

[39] SAS Institute, 2001. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics Version 8.2.

[40] Soil Survey Staff, 1996. Soil Survey Laboratory Methods Manual. Soil Survey Investigation Rep. No. 42, Ver. 3.0. Washington, DC.

[41] Soltan, M.E., Rageh, H.M., Rageh, N,M.M., Ahmed, M.E., 2005. Experimental approaches and analytical technique for determining heavy metals in fallen dust at ferrosilicon production factory in Edfu, Aswan, Egypt. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci., 6B(8):708-718.

[42] Su, C., Suarez, D.L., 2004. Boron release from weathering illites serpentines shales and illitic/palygorskitic soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68:96-105.

[43] Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, L.F., 1991. Wastewater Engineering Treatment Disposal and Rense (3rd Ed.). Mc. Graw-Hill Inc., New York, USA.

[44] Thomas, G.W., 1996. Soil pH and Soil Acidity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3: Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series No. 5. SSA and ASA, Madison, WI, p.475-490.

[45] Vogel, C., 1978. Quantitative Inorganic Analysis (4th Ed.). Longman Group Limited, London.

[46] Wang, Y.P., Liao, C.H., 1999. The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Crop. In: The Establishment of Monitoring Database of Heavy Metals in the Crop. Taiwan Agricultural Chemical and Toxic Substances Research Institute (TACTRI), Wufeng, Taichung, p.57-60.

[47] WHO (World Health Organization), 2003. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality (3rd Ed.). WHO, Genera, Rome.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE