Full Text:   <3811>

CLC number: X524

On-line Access: 

Received: 2009-01-11

Revision Accepted: 2009-05-18

Crosschecked: 2009-08-20

Cited: 5

Clicked: 5805

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2009 Vol.10 No.9 P.1367-1373


Lake sediment treatment with aluminum, iron, calcium and nitrate additives to reduce phosphorus release

Author(s):  Guang-rong LIU, Chun-song YE, Jing-hao HE, Qin QIAN, Hua JIANG

Affiliation(s):  College of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

Corresponding email(s):   liuguangrong04@126.com

Key Words:  Sediment, Internal phosphorus, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Nitrate, P fraction

Guang-rong LIU, Chun-song YE, Jing-hao HE, Qin QIAN, Hua JIANG. Lake sediment treatment with aluminum, iron, calcium and nitrate additives to reduce phosphorus release[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2009, 10(9): 1367-1373.

@article{title="Lake sediment treatment with aluminum, iron, calcium and nitrate additives to reduce phosphorus release",
author="Guang-rong LIU, Chun-song YE, Jing-hao HE, Qin QIAN, Hua JIANG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Lake sediment treatment with aluminum, iron, calcium and nitrate additives to reduce phosphorus release
%A Guang-rong LIU
%A Chun-song YE
%A Jing-hao HE
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 10
%N 9
%P 1367-1373
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2009
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A0920028

T1 - Lake sediment treatment with aluminum, iron, calcium and nitrate additives to reduce phosphorus release
A1 - Guang-rong LIU
A1 - Chun-song YE
A1 - Jing-hao HE
A1 - Qin QIAN
A1 - Hua JIANG
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 10
IS - 9
SP - 1367
EP - 1373
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2009
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A0920028

Treatment of lake sediments with salts is a promising approach for preventing phosphorus release from sediments. Five 35-d treatments of undisturbed sediment cores in the East Lake, Wuhan, China were applied under anoxic conditions: nothing added (control), Al2(SO4)3 added, FeCl3 added, CaCl2 added, and NaNO3 added. To identify changes in the P binding sites in the sediment caused by the treatments, different P binding forms were extracted from the sediment before and after the treatments. We found that the mean P release rates for anoxic treatments with Al2(SO4)3, FeCl3, CaCl2 and NaNO3 were −0.6, 0.03, 0.6 and 2.6 mg/(m2·d), respectively, while the P release rate with no additives was 7.3 mg/(m2·d). In suboxic conditions, the concentration of total phosphorus (TPaverage 657 mg/kg) in sediment was much lower than that of untreated sediment (TPaverage 688 mg/kg) and treatments with salts (TP(Al2(SO4)3) 793 mg/kg, TP(FeCl3) 781 mg/kg, TP(NaNO3) 802 mg/kg, TP(CaCl2) 747 mg/kg). We also found that adding CaCl2 prevented P release because of apatite formation and because PCa (Ca bound P) increased at the sediment surface. Addition of Fe3+ and NO3 to the sediment increased the amounts of PFe, Mn (Redox-sensitive P, mostly Fe and Mn compounds), since iron oxide has the ability to combine P. Addition of Al2(SO4)3 increased the fraction of PAl, Fe (P bound to metal oxides (Al, Fe)) and decreased the P and Fe in the water above the anoxic sediment, showing the greater ability of Al in binding P. The results showed that Al2(SO4)3, FeCl3, CaCl2 and NaNO3 all had an effect in controlling phosphorus release. The effect was related to the forms of phosphorus existing in the sediment before treatment and the forms resulting after adding the four reagents. The combination of Al3+ or Fe3+ with NO3 promises to be a reasonable chemical treatment for increasing the P retention capacity of sediments in eutrophic lakes. If chemical treatment is combined with bioremediation, the aim of environmental repair may be achieved.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Fytianos, K., Kotzakioti, A., 2005. Sequential fractionation of phosphorus in lake sediments of northern Greece. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 100(1-3):191-200.

[2] Gao, L., Zhou, J.M., Yang, H., 2005. Phosphorus fractions in sediment profiles and their potential contributions to eutrophication in Dianchi Lake. Environmental Geology, 48(7):835-844.

[3] Jensen, H.S., Kristensen, P., Jeppesen, E., Skytthe, A., 1992. Iron: phosphorus ratio in surface sediment as an indicator of phosphorus release from aerobic sediments in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia, 235-236(1):731-743.

[4] Jiang, J.G., Shen, Y.F., 2006. Estimation of the natural purification rate of a eutrophic lake after pollutant removal. Ecological Engineering, 28(2):166-173.

[5] Kaiserli, A., Voutas, D., Samara, C., 2002. Phosphorus fractionation in lake sediment—Lakes Volvi and Koronia, N Greece. Chemosphere, 46(8):1147-1155.

[6] Kim, L.H., Choi, E., Stenstrom, M.K., 2003. Sediment characteristics, phosphorus types and phosphorus release rates between river and lake sediments. Chemosphere, 50(1):53-61.

[7] Lehtoranta, J., Heiskanen, A.S., 2003. Dissolved iron: phosphate ratio as an indicator of phosphate release to oxic water of the inner and outer coastal Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia, 492(1-3):69-84.

[8] Li, T., Wang, D.S., Zhang, B., 2006. Characterization of the phosphate adsorption and morphology of sediment particles under simulative disturbing conditions. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 137(3):1624-1630.

[9] Prepas, E.E., Babin, J., Murphy, T.P., Chambers, P.A., 2001. Long-term effects of successive Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 treatments on the water quality of two eutrophic hardwater lakes. Freshwater Biology, 46(8):1089-1103.

[10] Qin, B.Q., Yang, L.Y., Chen, F.Z., Zhu, G.W., Zhang, L., Chen, Y.Y., 2006. Mechanism and control of lake eutrophication. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51(19):2401-2412.

[11] Ripl, W., 1976. Biochemical oxidation of polluted lake sediment with nitrate—a new restoration method. Ambio, 5:132-135.

[12] Søndergaard, M., Jeppesen, E., Jensen, J.P., 2000. Hypolimnetic nitrate treatment to reduce internal phosphorus loading in a stratified lake. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management, 16(3):195-204.

[13] Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J.P., Jeppesen, E., 2003. Role of sediment and internal loading of phosphorus in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia, 506-509(1-3):135-145.

[14] Stuben, D., Walpersdorf, E.V.K., Ronicke, H., Schimmele, M., Baborowski, M., Luther, G., 1998. Application of lake marl at Lake Arendsee, NE Germany: First results of a geochemical monitoring during the restoration experiment. The Science of the Total Environment, 218:33-44.

[15] Wauer, G., Gonsiorczyk, T., Casper, P., 2005a. P-immobilisation and phosphatase activities in lake sediment following treatment with nitrate and iron. Limnologica, 35(1-2):102-108.

[16] Wauer, G., Gonsiorczyk, T., Kretschmer, K., 2005b. Sediment treatment with a nitrate-storing compound to reduce phosphorus release. Water Research, 39(2-3):494-500.

[17] Xie, L., Xie, P., 2002. Long-term (1956-1999) dynamics of phosphorus in a shallow, subtropical Chinese lake with the possible effects of cyanobacterial blooms. Water Research, 36(1):343-349.

[18] Yang, H., Yi, C., Xie, P., 2005. Sedimentation rates, nitrogen and phosphorus retentions in the largest urban Lake Donghu, China. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 267(1):205-208.

[19] Zong, D.L., Zhang, G.M., 2006. Mechanisms and application of calcium nitrate in the remediation of polluted sediment. China Rural Water and Hydropower, 4:52-54 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE