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On-line Access: 2016-01-06

Received: 2015-07-13

Revision Accepted: 2015-11-04

Crosschecked: 2015-12-10

Cited: 3

Clicked: 4308

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Hui-ming Wang


Shao-xing Qu


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2016 Vol.17 No.1 P.22-36


Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review

Author(s):  Hui-ming Wang, Shao-xing Qu

Affiliation(s):  1Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310027, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   wanghuiming@zju.edu.cn, squ@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Constitutive model, Artificial muscle, Dielectric elastomer, Responsive gel, Free energy function

Hui-ming Wang, Shao-xing Qu. Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2016, 17(1): 22-36.

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author="Hui-ming Wang, Shao-xing Qu",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

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%T Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review
%A Hui-ming Wang
%A Shao-xing Qu
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
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%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1500207

T1 - Constitutive models of artificial muscles: a review
A1 - Hui-ming Wang
A1 - Shao-xing Qu
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 17
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SP - 22
EP - 36
%@ 1673-565X
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PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
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DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1500207

artificial muscles are materials which possess muscle-like characteristics; they have many promising applications and many materials have been exploited as artificial muscles. In this review, the artificial muscles discussed are confined to dielectric elastomers and responsive gels. We focus on their constitutive models based on free energy function theory. For dielectric elastomers, both hyperelastic and visco-hyperelastic models are involved. For responsive gels, we consider different kinds of gels, such as hydrogel, pH-sensitive gel, temperature-sensitive gel, polyelectrolyte gel, reactive gel, etc. With an accurate, reliable, and powerful constitutive model, exact theoretical analysis can be achieved and the important intrinsic characteristics of artificial muscle based systems can be revealed.

Soft active materials have emerged as novel materials for diverse applications that can not be addressed by classical hard passive materials. The field of soft active materials is wide and open, where mechanics meets physics, chemistry and machinery. To understand the unique behavior of soft active materials, as well as to aid the design of soft materials based machines, mechanics modeling and analysis plays an important role to tackle these problems, where constitutive law of soft materials is the focus and core of the problem. Focusing on two currently popular soft materials, i.e., dielectric elastomer and hydrogel, the authors present an excellent overview of the constitutive laws developed in the past decades. They formulate and review the constitutive laws of artificial muscles from the pointview of free energy function.The authors give detailed and comprehensive review of the various forms of free energy used in the literature. They also provide their perspectives on the features and limitations of the models.The review is an excellent review and is very helpful for the researcher in this field, particularly those who just start up their research.



Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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