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Hao-liang Wu


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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2023 Vol.24 No.10 P.898-911


Geo-environmental properties and microstructural characteristics of sustainable limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) binder treated Zn-contaminated soils

Author(s):  Haoliang WU, Heng SONG, Xinpo SUN, Yuzhang BI, Shenjing FU, Ning YANG

Affiliation(s):  Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   wuhliang5@mail.sysu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Limestone calcined clay cement (LC3), Stabilization/solidification (S/S), Zn-contaminated soils, Microstructural characteristics

Haoliang WU, Heng SONG, Xinpo SUN, Yuzhang BI, Shenjing FU, Ning YANG. Geo-environmental properties and microstructural characteristics of sustainable limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) binder treated Zn-contaminated soils[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2023, 24(10): 898-911.

@article{title="Geo-environmental properties and microstructural characteristics of sustainable limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) binder treated Zn-contaminated soils",
author="Haoliang WU, Heng SONG, Xinpo SUN, Yuzhang BI, Shenjing FU, Ning YANG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Geo-environmental properties and microstructural characteristics of sustainable limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) binder treated Zn-contaminated soils
%A Haoliang WU
%A Heng SONG
%A Xinpo SUN
%A Yuzhang BI
%A Shenjing FU
%A Ning YANG
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 24
%N 10
%P 898-911
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2023
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A2200531

T1 - Geo-environmental properties and microstructural characteristics of sustainable limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) binder treated Zn-contaminated soils
A1 - Haoliang WU
A1 - Heng SONG
A1 - Xinpo SUN
A1 - Yuzhang BI
A1 - Shenjing FU
A1 - Ning YANG
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 24
IS - 10
SP - 898
EP - 911
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2023
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A2200531

limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) is an environment-friendly and sustainable cementitious material. It has recently gained considerable attention for the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of soils contaminated by heavy metals. However, the existing studies on S/S of zn-contaminated soils using LC3 in terms of hydraulic conductivity and microstructural properties as compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are limited. This study focuses on the evaluation of the mechanical, leaching, and microstructural characteristics of zn-contaminated soils treated with different contents (0%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) of low-carbon LC3. The engineering performance of the treated zn-contaminated soils is assessed over time using unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity (k), toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) tests. Experimental results show that the UCS of zn-contaminated soils treated with LC3 ranged from 1.47 to 2.49 MPa, which is higher than 1.63%‍–‍13.07% for those treated with OPC. The k of zn-contaminated soils treated with LC3 ranged from 1.16×10-8 to 5.18×10-8 cm/s as compared to the OPC treated samples. For the leaching properties, the leached Zn from TCLP and SPLP is 1.58‍–‍321.10 mg/L and 0.52‍–‍284.65 mg/L as the LC3 contents ranged from 4% to 10%. Further, the corresponding pH modeling results indicate that LC3 promotes a relatively suitable dynamic equilibrium condition to immobilize the higher-level Zn contamination. In addition, microscopic analyses demonstrate that the formations of hydration products, i.‍e., Zn(OH)2, Zn2SiO4, calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), calcium silicate aluminate hydrate (C‍–‍A‍–‍S‍–‍H) gel, ettringite, and CaZn(SiO4)(H2O), are the primary mechanisms for the immobilization of Zn. This study also provides an empirical formula between the UCS and k to support the application of LC3-solidified zn-contaminated soils in practical engineering in the field.




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