Full Text:   <1794>

CLC number: R75

On-line Access: 

Received: 2008-03-07

Revision Accepted: 2008-06-21

Crosschecked: 2008-12-04

Cited: 4

Clicked: 3715

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2009 Vol.10 No.1 P.57~66


Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China

Author(s):  Yi-na WANG, Hong FANG, Wei-fang ZHU

Affiliation(s):  Department of Dermatology, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China

Corresponding email(s):   fanghongzy@sina.com

Key Words:  Skin aging, Influential factor, Fitzpatrick type, Solar exposure, Skin type, Concomitant facial disease

Yi-na WANG, Hong FANG, Wei-fang ZHU. Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2009, 10(1): 57~66.

@article{title="Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China",
author="Yi-na WANG, Hong FANG, Wei-fang ZHU",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China
%A Yi-na WANG
%A Hong FANG
%A Wei-fang ZHU
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 10
%N 1
%P 57~66
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2009
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B0820071

T1 - Survey on skin aging status and related influential factors in Southeast China
A1 - Yi-na WANG
A1 - Hong FANG
A1 - Wei-fang ZHU
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 10
IS - 1
SP - 57
EP - 66
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2009
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B0820071

Objective: To investigate cutaneous aging patterns of residents in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, and their contributing factors. Methods: Eight hundred and forty-eight Hangzhou residents received the survey between March 2004 and September 2004. Results: Facial wrinkling first occurred at 21 years of age and skin elasticity began to lose at 22 years of age. In middle-aged and old people, facial wrinkling and looseness escalated with the increase of ultraviolet (UV)-exposure time, indicating the accelerating effect of a higher accumulative dose of UV radiation on skin aging. Only fitzpatrick types II, III and IV were found in the skin phototypes of residents in Hangzhou area, and fitzpatrick type II seemed to be much more subject to severe wrinkling, elasticity destruction and skin tumors than types III and IV. The oily skin was more protected against wrinkling and facial looseness than dry skin. However, as to concomitant cutaneous diseases, no difference was found among different skin types. Conclusion: Age, solar-exposure time, fitzpatrick type and skin type are the associated forces in promoting skin aging, and emotional factor seems to be another independent risk factor. The age of 49 years and 2 h/d of solar-exposure time seem to be the turning points responsible for dramatic changes of cutaneous appearance in the process of skin aging in Southeast China.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Akiba, S., Shinkura, R., Miyamoto, K., Hillebrand, G., Yamaguchi, N., Ichihashi, M., 1999. Influence of chronic UV exposure and lifestyle on facial skin photo-aging: results from a pilot study. J. Epidermiol., 9(6 Suppl.): S136-S142.

[2] Chung, J.H., Lee, S.H., Youn, C.S., Park, B.J., Kim, K.H., Park, K.C., Cho, K.H., Eun, H.C., 2001. Cutaneous photodamage in Koreans: influence of sex, sun exposure, smoking, and skin color. Arch. Dermatol., 137(8): 1043-1051.

[3] El-Domyati, M., Attia, S., Saleh, F., Brown, D., Birk, D.E., Gasparro, F., Ahmad, H., Uitto, J., 2002. Intrinsic aging vs. photoaging: a comparative histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin. Exp. Dermatol., 11(5):398-405.

[4] Fisher, G.J., 2005. The pathophysiology of photoaging of the skin. Cutis., 75 (2 Suppl):5-8.

[5] Fitzpatrick, T.B., 1988. The validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch. Dermatol., 124(6):869-871.

[6] Goukassian, D.A., Gilchrest, B.A., 2004. The interdependence of skin aging, skin cancer, and DNA repair capacity: a novel perspective with therapeutic implications. Rejuvenation. Res., 7(3):175-185.

[7] Gupta, M.A., Gilchrest, B.A., 2005. Psychosocial aspects of aging skin. Dermatol. Clin., 23(4):643-648.

[8] Hall, G., Phillips, T.J., 2005. Estrogen and skin: the effects of estrogen, menopause, and hormone replacement therapy on the skin. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 53(4):555-568.

[9] Hashizume, H., 2004. Skin aging and dry skin. J. Dermatol., 31(8):603-609.

[10] Helfrich, Y.R., Yu, L., Ofori, A., Hamilton, T.A., Lambert, J., King, A., Voorhees, J.J., Kang, S., 2007. Effect of smoking on aging of photoprotected skin: evidence gathered using a new photonumeric scale. Arch. Dermatol., 143(3):397-402.

[11] Hoey, S.E., Devereux, C.E., Murray, L., Catney, D., Gavin, A., Kumar, S., Donnelly, D., Dolan, O.M., 2007. Skin cancer trends in Northern Ireland and consequences for provision of dermatology services. Br. J. Dermatol., 156(6): 1301-1307.

[12] Krause, W., 2006. Skin diseases in consequence of endocrine alterations. Aging Male., 9(2):81-95.

[13] Makrantonaki, E., Zouboulis, C.C., 2007. Molecular mechanisms of skin aging: state of the art. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1119(1):40-50.

[14] McCullough, J.L., Kelly, K.M., 2006. Prevention and treatment of skin aging. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1067(1): 323-331.

[15] Nouveau-Richard, S., Yang, Z., Mac-Mary, S., Li, L., Bastien, P., Tardy, I., Bouillon, C., Humbert, P., de Lacharriere, O., 2005. Skin ageing: a comparison between Chinese and European populations. A pilot study. J. Dermatol. Sci., 40(3):187-193.

[16] Omari, A.K., Khammash, M.R., Matalka, I., 2006. Skin cancer trends in northern Jordan. Int. J. Dermatol., 45(4): 384-388.

[17] Phan, T.A., Halliday, G.M., Barnetson, R.S., Damian, D.L., 2006. Melanin differentially protects from the initiation and progression of threshold UV-induced erythema depending on UV waveband. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed., 22(4):174-180.

[18] Pons, M., Quintanilla, M., 2006. Molecular biology of malignant melanoma and other cutaneous tumors. Clin. Transl. Oncol., 8(7):466-474.

[19] Rabe, J.H., Mamelak, A.J., McElgunn, P.J., Morison, W.L., Sauder, D.N., 2006. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 55(1):1-19.

[20] Rijken, F., Bruijnzeel, P.L., van Weelden, H., Kiekens, R.C., 2004. Responses of black and white skin to solar-simulating radiation: differences in DNA photodamage, infiltrating neutrophils, proteolytic enzymes induced, keratinocyte activation, and IL-10 expression. J. Invest. Dermatol., 122(6):1448-1455.

[21] Roh, K., Kim, D., Ha, S., Ro, Y., Kim, J., Lee, H., 2001. Pigmentation in Koreans: study of the differences from caucasians in age, gender and seasonal variations. Br. J. Dermatol., 144(1):94-99.

[22] Stang, A., Ziegler, S., Büchner, U., Ziegler, B., Jöckel, K.H., Ziegler, V., 2007. Malignant melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany: a patient- vs. diagnosis-based incidence approach. Int. J. Dermatol., 46(6):564-570.

[23] Stern, R.S., 2004. Treatment of photoaging. N. Engl. J. Med., 350(15):1526-1534.

[24] Tagami, H., 2008. Functional characteristics of the stratum corneum in photoaged skin in comparison with those found in intrinsic aging. Arch. Dermatol. Res., 300(S1): 1-6.

[25] Verdier-Sevrain, S., Bonte, F., Gilchrest, B., 2006. Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging. Exp. Dermatol., 15(2):83-94.

[26] Zhao, P., Zhu, X., Liu, Y., Wang, B., Wang, C., Burns, F.J., 1998. Solar ultraviolet radiation and skin damage: an epidemiological study among a Chinese population. Arch. Environ. Health., 53(6):405-409.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE