Full Text:   <4912>

CLC number: TS202.3

On-line Access: 2011-11-30

Received: 2011-02-09

Revision Accepted: 2011-04-25

Crosschecked: 2011-09-30

Cited: 28

Clicked: 7629

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2011 Vol.12 No.12 P.961-968


Red pigment production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 is influenced by pH and temperature

Author(s):  Alejandro Mndez, Catalina Prez, Julio Cesar Montaz, Gabriela Martnez, Cristbal No Aguilar

Affiliation(s):  Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autnoma de Coahuila, Saltillo 25280, Coahuila, Mexico, Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autnoma de Coahuila, Saltillo 25280, Coahuila, Mexico, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autnoma de Coahuila, Saltillo 25280, Coahuila, Mexico

Corresponding email(s):   cristobal.aguilar@uadec.edu.mx

Key Words:  Penicillium purpurogenum, Food colorants, Combined effects, Water-soluble pigment

Alejandro Mndez, Catalina Prez, Julio Cesar Montaz, Gabriela Martnez, Cristbal No Aguilar. Red pigment production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 is influenced by pH and temperature[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2011, 12(12): 961-968.

@article{title="Red pigment production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 is influenced by pH and temperature",
author="Alejandro Mndez, Catalina Prez, Julio Cesar Montaz, Gabriela Martnez, Cristbal No Aguilar",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Red pigment production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 is influenced by pH and temperature
%A Alejandro Mndez
%A Catalina Prez
%A Julio Cesar Montaz
%A Gabriela Martnez
%A Cristbal No Aguilar
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 12
%N 12
%P 961-968
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2011
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1100039

T1 - Red pigment production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 is influenced by pH and temperature
A1 - Alejandro Mndez
A1 - Catalina Prez
A1 - Julio Cesar Montaz
A1 - Gabriela Martnez
A1 - Cristbal No Aguilar
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 12
IS - 12
SP - 961
EP - 968
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2011
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1100039

The combined effects of pH and temperature on red pigment production and fungal morphology were evaluated in a submerged culture of Penicillium purpurogenum GH2, using Czapek-Dox media with d-xylose as a carbon source. An experimental design with a factorial fix was used: three pH values (5, 7, and 9) and two temperature levels (24 and 34 °C) were evaluated. The highest production of red pigment (2.46 g/L) was reached with a pH value of 5 and a temperature of 24 °C. Biomass and red pigment production were not directly associated. This study demonstrates that P. purpurogenum GH2 produces a pigment of potential interest to the food industry. It also shows the feasibility of producing and obtaining natural water-soluble pigments for potential use in food industries. A strong combined effect (p<0.05) of pH and temperature was associated with maximal red pigment production (2.46 g/L).

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Ahn, J., Jung, J., Hyung, W., Haam, S., Shin, C., 2006. Enhancement of monascus pigment production by the culture of Monascus sp. J101 at low temperature. Biotechnol. Prog., 22(1):338-340.

[2]Babitha, S., Soccol, C.R., Pandey, A., 2007. Solid-state fermentation for the production of Monascus pigments from jackfruit seed. Biores. Technol., 98(8):1554-1560.

[3]Blanc, P.J., Loret, M.O., Santerre, A.L., Pareilleux, A., Prome, D., Prome, J.C., Laussac, J.P., Goma, G., 1994. Pigments of Monascus. J. Food Sci., 59(4):862-865.

[4]Boskou, D., 2008. Properties of Food Colours Obtained by the Physical Extraction, Chemical Synthesis and Biosynthesis by Microorganisms. In: Koutinas, A., Pandey, A., Larroche, C. (Eds.), Current Topics on Bioprocess in Food Industry, Vol. II. Asiatech Publisher Inc., New Delhi, India, p.499-506.

[5]Carvalho, J.C., Pandey, A., Babitha, S., Soccol, C.R., 2003. Production of Monascus biopigments: an overview. Agro Food Ind. Hi-Tech, 14(6):37-42.

[6]Chen, M.H., Johns, M.R., 1993. Effect of pH and nitrogen source on pigment production by Monascus purpureus. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 40(1):132-138.

[7]Cho, Y.J., Hwang, H.J., Kim, S.W., Song, C.H., Yun, J.W., 2002. Effect of carbon source and aeration rate on broth rheology and fungal morphology during red pigment production by Paecilomyces sinclairii in a batch bioreactor. J. Biotechnol., 95(1):13-23.

[8]Dufossé, L., 2006. Microbial production of food grade pigments. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 44(3):313-321.

[9]Durán, N., Teixeira, M.F.S., de Conti, R., Esposito, E., 2002. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nut., 42(1):53-66.

[10]Engstrom, G.W., Stenkamp, R.E., McDorman, D.J., Jensen, L.H., 1982. Spectral identification, X-ray structure determination, and iron chelating capability of erythroglaucin, a red pigment from Aspergillus ruber. J. Agric. Food Chem., 30(2):304-307.

[11]Espinoza-Hernández, T.C., Rodriguez-Herrera, R., Aguilar, Contreras-Esquivel, J.C., 2004. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Strains (Pigment Producers). Proceedings of First Congress of Food Science and Food Biotechnology in Developing Countries. Durango, Dgo, Mexico, p.227-231.

[12]Gunasekaran, S., Poorniammal, R., 2008. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production from Penicillium sp. under submerged cultivation. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7(12):1894-1898.

[13]Hajjaj, H., Blanc, P.J., Groussac, E., Goma, G., Uribelarrea, J.L., Loubiere, P., 1999. Improvement of red pigment/ citrinin production ratio as a function of environmental conditions by Monascus ruber. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 64(4):497-501.

[14]Hernández-Rivera, J.S., Méndez-Zavala, A., Pérez-Berúmen, C., Contreras-Esquivel, J.C., Rodríguez-Herrera, R., Aguilar, C.N., 2008. Culture Conditions to Improve the Red Pigment Production by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2. In: Soto-Cruz, O., Angel, P.M., Gallegos-Infante, A., Rodríguez-Herrera, R. (Eds.), Advance in Food Science and Food Biotechnology in Developing Countries. Mex Asoc Food Sci Editions, Saltillo, Mexico, p.108-112.

[15]Jiang, Y., Li, H.B., Chen, F., Hyde, K.D., 2005. Production potential of water-soluble Monascus red pigment by a newly isolated Penicillium sp. J. Agric. Technol., 1(1):113-126.

[16]Lin, T.F., Demain, A.L., 1991. Effect of nutrition of Monascus sp. on formation of red pigments. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 36(1):70-75.

[17]Mapari, S.A.S., Meyer, A.S., Thrane, U., 2006. Colorimetric characterization for comparative analysis of fungal pigments and natural food colorants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(19):7027-7035.

[18]Mapari, S.A.S., Hansen, M.E., Meyer, A.S., Thrane, U., 2008a. Computerized screening for novel producers of Monascus-like food pigments in Penicillium species. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(21):9981-9989.

[19]Mapari, S.A.S., Meyer, A.S., Thrane, U., 2008b. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum for growth, morphology and production of natural colorants in liquid media and on solid rice medium. Biotechnol. Lett., 30(12):2183-2190.

[20]Méndez-Zavala, A., Contreras-Esquivel, J.C., Lara-Victoriano, F., Rodríguez-Herrera, R., Aguilar, C.N., 2007. Fungal production of a red pigment using a xerophilic strain of Penicillium purpurogenum GH2. Rev. Mex. Ing. Quím., 6:267-273.

[21]Miyake, T., Zhang, M.Y., Kono, I., Nozaki, N., Sammoto, H., 2006. Repression of secondary metabolite production by exogenous cAMP in Monascus. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 70(6):1521-1523.

[22]Orozco, S.F., Kilikian, B.V., 2008. Effect of pH on citrinin and red pigments production by Monascus purpureus CCT3802. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 24(2):263-268.

[23]Quintero-Ramírez, R., 1981. Kinetics of Microbial Growth. In: Mexicana, A. (Ed.), Biochemical Engineering: Theory and Applications. Editorial Alhambra Mexicana, Mexico, p.32 (in Spanish).

[24]Shin, C.S., Kim, H.J., Kim, M.J., Ju, J.Y., 1998. Morphological change and enhanced pigment production of Monascus when cocultured with Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Aspergillus oryzae. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 59(5):576-581.

[25]Su, Y.C., 1983. Fermentative production of anka-pigments (Monascus pigments). Kor. J. Microbiol. Bioeng., 11:325-329.

[26]Suh, J.H., Shin, C.S., 2000. Physiological analysis on novel coculture of Monascus sp. J101 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 190(2):241-245.

[27]Suhr, K.I., Haasum, I., Streenstrup, L.D., Larsen, T.O., 2002. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum. J. Dairy Sci., 85(11):2786-2794.

[28]Tseng, Y.Y., Chen, M.T., Lin, C.F., 2000. Growth, pigment production and protease activity of Monascus purpureus as affected by salt, sodium nitrite, polyphosphate and various sugars. J. Appl. Microbiol., 88(1):31-37.

[29]Vázquez-Duhalt, R., 2002. Biological Thermodynamics. AGT Editor, SA, Mexico DF, p.223.

[30]Zhou, J., Liu, L., Shi, Z., Du, G., Chen, J., 2009. ATP in current biotechnology: regulation, applications and perspectives. Biotechnol. Adv., 27(1):94-101.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Cristobal Aguilar@University of Coahuila<cristobal.aguilar@uadec.edu.mx>

2012-05-31 00:12:08

I will be contacting you by email

padmapriya@research scholar<agri.padma@gmail.com>

2012-05-29 00:23:36

I;m padmapriya doing research on production of microbial pigment. So i need this article for my research work. Kindly send as early as possible.

Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE