Full Text:   <2520>

Summary:  <1581>

CLC number: X53

On-line Access: 2018-02-06

Received: 2017-01-12

Revision Accepted: 2017-04-09

Crosschecked: 2018-01-27

Cited: 0

Clicked: 4164

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Lin Tang


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2018 Vol.19 No.2 P.147-158


Variations in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among water spinach genotypes and implications for screening safe genotypes for human consumption

Author(s):  Lin Tang, Wei-jun Luo, Zhen-li He, Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala, Yasir Hamid, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Xiao-e Yang

Affiliation(s):  Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   xeyang@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Genotypic difference, Heavy metal, Nitrate, Soil pollution, Water spinach

Lin Tang, Wei-jun Luo, Zhen-li He, Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala, Yasir Hamid, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Xiao-e Yang. Variations in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among water spinach genotypes and implications for screening safe genotypes for human consumption[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2018, 19(2): 147-158.

@article{title="Variations in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among water spinach genotypes and implications for screening safe genotypes for human consumption",
author="Lin Tang, Wei-jun Luo, Zhen-li He, Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala, Yasir Hamid, Kiran Yasmin Khan, Xiao-e Yang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Variations in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among water spinach genotypes and implications for screening safe genotypes for human consumption
%A Lin Tang
%A Wei-jun Luo
%A Zhen-li He
%A Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala
%A Yasir Hamid
%A Kiran Yasmin Khan
%A Xiao-e Yang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 19
%N 2
%P 147-158
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2018
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1700017

T1 - Variations in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among water spinach genotypes and implications for screening safe genotypes for human consumption
A1 - Lin Tang
A1 - Wei-jun Luo
A1 - Zhen-li He
A1 - Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala
A1 - Yasir Hamid
A1 - Kiran Yasmin Khan
A1 - Xiao-e Yang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 19
IS - 2
SP - 147
EP - 158
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2018
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1700017

Vegetables are important constituents of the human diet. heavy metals and nitrate are among the major contaminants of vegetables. Consumption of vegetables and fruits with accumulated heavy metals and nitrate has the potential to damage different body organs leading to unwanted effects. Breeding vegetables with low heavy metal and nitrate contaminants is a cost-effective approach. We investigated 38 water spinach genotypes for low Cd and nitrate co-accumulation. Four genotypes, i.e. JXDY, GZQL, XGDB, and B888, were found to have low co-accumulation of Cd (<0.71 mg/kg dry weight) and nitrate (<3100 mg/kg fresh weight) in the edible parts when grown in soils with moderate contamination of both Cd (1.10 mg/kg) and nitrate (235.2 mg/kg). These genotypes should be appropriate with minimized risk to humans who consume them. The Cd levels in the edible parts of water spinach were positively correlated with the concentration of Pb or Zn, but Cd, Pb, or Zn was negatively correlated with P concentration. These results indicate that these three heavy metals may be absorbed into the plant in similar proportions or in combination, minimizing the influx to aerial parts. Increasing P fertilizer application rates appears to prevent heavy metal and nitrate translocation to shoot tissues and the edible parts of water spinach on co-contaminated soils.


方法:共38个空心菜基因型收集于世界各地,种植在连作了7年的中度镉-硝酸盐复合污染土壤上(Cd 1.10 mg/kg,NO3 235.2 mg/kg),4周后收获.用HNO3-HClO4(体积比5:1)消煮,电感耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)测定各种金属元素,水杨酸-硫酸比色法测定硝酸盐含量,钒钼黄比色法测定磷含量,2,6-二氯靛酚滴定法测定维生素C含量,乙醇-丙酮(体积比2:1)比色法测定叶绿素含量.
结论:本试验筛选得到镉-硝酸盐共低积累空心菜基因型4个(Cd <0.71 mg/kg DW,NO3 <3100 mg/kg FW),分别是JXDYGZQLXGDBB888,可以在中轻度镉-硝酸盐复合污染土壤上安全生产.空心菜地上部镉与铅、锌含量呈正相关,而这3种元素均与磷量呈负相关.这些结果表明镉、铅和锌通过相同的途径被空心菜吸收,可以同时被治理.增加磷肥供应率可以抑制复合污染土壤中的镉和硝酸盐向空心菜可食部的转移.


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Anjana, Umar S, Iqbal M, 2009. Factors responsible for nitrate accumulation: a review. In: Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, et al. (Eds.), Sustainable Agriculture. Springer, Dordrecht, p.533-549.

[2]Arao T, Ae N, Sugiyama M, et al., 2003. Genotypic differences in cadmium uptake and distribution in soybeans. Plant Soil, 251(2):247-253.

[3]Arao T, Kawasaki A, Baba K, et al., 2009. Effects of water management on cadmium and arsenic accumulation and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations in Japanese rice. Environ Sci Technol, 43(24):9361-9367.

[4]Astolfi S, Zuchi S, Passera C, 2004. Role of sulphur availability on cadmium-induced changes of nitrogen and sulphur metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. J Plant Physiol, 161(7):795-802.

[5]Bao SD, 2008. Soil agricultural Chemistry Analysis Method, 3rd Ed. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[6]Barickman TC, Kopsell DA, 2016. Nitrogen form and ratio impact Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla) shoot tissue carotenoid and chlorophyll concentrations. Sci Hortic, 204:99-105.

[7]Borowski E, Michalek S, 2008. The effect of nitrogen form and air temperature during foliar fertilization on gas exchange, the yield and nutritive value of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Folia Hortic, 20(2):17-27.

[8]Burns IG, Zhang KF, Turner MK, et al., 2010. Iso-osmotic regulation of nitrate accumulation in lettuce. J Plant Nutr, 34(2):283-313.

[9]Burns IG, Zhang KF, Turner MK, et al., 2011a. Screening for genotype and environment effects on nitrate accumulation in 24 species of young lettuce. J Sci Food Agric, 91(3):553-562.

[10]Burns IG, Zhang KF, Turner MK, et al., 2011b. Genotype and environment effects on nitrate accumulation in a diversity set of lettuce accessions at commercial maturity: the influence of nitrate uptake and assimilation, osmotic interactions and shoot weight and development. J Sci Food Agric, 91(12):2217-2233.

[11]Cárdenas-Navarro R, Adamowicz S, Robin P, 1999. Nitrate accumulation in plants: a role for water. J Exp Bot, 50(334):613-624.

[12]Chen XP, Cui ZL, Fan MS, et al., 2014. Producing more grain with lower environmental costs. Nature, 514(7523):486-489.

[13]Chen Y, Li TQ, Han X, et al., 2012. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 13(6):494-502.

[14]Cheng WD, Zhang GP, Yao HG, et al., 2006. Genotypic and environmental variation in cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nickel, and lead concentrations in rice grains. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B, 7(7):565-571.

[15]Clemens S, 2006. Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Biochimie, 88(11):1707-1719.

[16]Clijsters H, van Assche F, 1985. Inhibition of photosynthesis by heavy metal. Phytosyn Res, 7(1):31-40.

[17]Cohen CK, Fox TC, Garvin DF, et al., 1998. The role of iron-deficiency stress responses in stimulating heavy-metal transport in plants. Plant Physiol, 116(3):1063-1072.

[18]Conesa E, Ninirola D, Vicente MJ, et al., 2009. The influence of nitrate/ammonium ratio on yield quality and nitrate, oxalate and vitamin C content of baby leaf spinach and bladder campion plants grown in a floating system. Acta Hortic, 843:269-273.

[19]Dheri GS, Brar MS, Malhi SS, 2007. Influence of phosphorus application on growth and cadmium uptake of spinach in two cadmium-contaminated soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci, 170(4):495-499.

[20]Dong J, Wu FB, Zhang GP, 2006. Influence of cadmium on antioxidant capacity and four microelement concentrations in tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere, 64(10):1659-1666.

[21]Escobar-Gutiérrez AJ, Burns IG, Lee A, et al., 2002. Screening lettuce cultivars for low nitrate content during summer and winter production. J Hort Sci Biotechnol, 77(2): 232-237.

[22]Fan SK, Zhu J, Tian WH, et al., 2017. Effects of split applications of nitrogen fertilizers on the Cd level and nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage. J Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol), 18(10):897-905.

[23]Grant CA, Clarke JM, Duguid S, et al., 2008. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation. Sci Total Environ, 390(2-3):301-310.

[24]Gulis G, Czompolyova M, Cerhan JR, 2002. An ecologic study of nitrate in municipal drinking water and cancer incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia. Environ Res, 88(3): 182-187.

[25]Habermeyer M, Roth A, Guth S, et al., 2015. Nitrate and nitrite in the diet: how to assess their benefit and risk for human health. Mol Nutr Food Res, 59(1):106-128.

[26]Hakeem KR, Mir BA, Qureshi MI, et al., 2013. Physiological studies and proteomic analysis for differentially expressed proteins and their possible role in the root of N-efficient rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol Breeding, 32(4): 785-798.

[27]Han YL, Song HX, Liao Q, et al., 2016. Nitrogen use efficiency is mediated by vacuolar nitrate sequestration capacity in roots of Brassica napus. Plant Physiol, 170(3): 1684-1698.

[28]He B, Yang XE, Ni WZ, et al., 2002. Sedum alfredii: a new lead-accumulating ecotype. Acta Bot Sin, 44(11):1365-1370 (in Chinese).

[29]Huang BF, Xin JL, Dai HW, et al., 2015. Identification of low-Cd cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) after growing on Cd-contaminated soil: uptake and partitioning to the edible roots. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 22(15):11813-11821.

[30]Huang YY, Shen C, Chen JX, et al., 2016. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. cultivars targeted to explore possible mechanism of genotype-dependent accumulation of cadmium. J Agric Food Chem, 64(25):5241-5250.

[31]Jiang HM, Yang JC, Zhang JF, 2007. Effects of external phosphorus on the cell ultrastructure and the chlorophyll content of maize under cadmium and zinc stress. Environ Pollut, 147(3):750-756.

[32]Kabata-Pendias A, 2011. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, 4th Ed. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, USA.

[33]Keller H, Römer W, 2001. Cu, Zn, and Cd acquisition by two spinach cultivars depending on P nutrition and root exudation. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci, 164(3):335-342 (in German).

[34]Kirkham MB, 2006. Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Geoderma, 137(1-2):19-32.

[35]Koh E, Charoenprasert S, Mitchell AE, 2012. Effect of organic and conventional cropping systems on ascorbic acid, vitamin C, flavonoids, nitrate, and oxalate in 27 varieties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). J Agric Food Chem, 60(12):3144-3150.

[36]Konstantopoulou E, Kapotis G, Salachas G, et al., 2010. Nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce at harvest and after storage in relation to N application and cultivation season. Sci Hortic, 125(2):93.e1-93.e5.

[37]Kopsell DA, Kopsell DE, Curran-Celentano J, et al., 2007. Carotenoid pigments in kale are influenced by nitrogen concentration and form. J Sci Food Agric, 87(5):900-907.

[38]Kristl J, Ivancic A, Mergedus A, et al., 2016. Variation of nitrate content among randomly selected taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) genotypes and the distribution of nitrate within a corm. J Food Compos Anal, 47:76-81.

[39]Lane EA, Canty MJ, More SJ, 2015. Cadmium exposure and consequence for the health and productivity of farmed ruminants. Res Vet Sci, 101:132-139.

[40]Li HS, 2000. Principle and Technology of Plant Physiological and Biochemical Experiment. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China (in Chinese).

[41]Li N, Kang Y, Pan WJ, et al., 2015. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China. Sci Total Environ, 521-522:144-151.

[42]Li XH, Zhou QX, Wei SH, et al., 2012. Identification of cadmium excluding welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars and their mechanisms of low cadmium accumulation. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 19(5):1773-1780.

[43]Liu F, Liu XN, Ding C, et al., 2015. The dynamic simulation of rice growth parameters under cadmium stress with the assimilation of multi-period spectral indices and crop model. Field Crops Res, 183:225-234.

[44]Liu JG, Li KQ, Xu JK, et al., 2003. Interaction of Cd and five mineral nutrients for uptake and accumulation in different rice cultivars and genotypes. Field Crop Res, 83(3): 271-281.

[45]Liu JG, Qian M, Cai GL, et al., 2007. Uptake and translocation of Cd in different rice cultivars and the relation with Cd accumulation in rice grain. J Hazard Mater, 143(1-2): 443-447.

[46]Liu WT, Zhou QX, An J, et al., 2010. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars. J Hazard Mater, 173(1-3): 737-743.

[47]Luo JK, Sun SB, Jia LJ, et al., 2006. The mechanism of nitrate accumulation in pakchoi [Brassica campestris L.ssp. Chinensis (L.)]. Plant Soil, 282(1-2):291-300.

[48]Lux A, Martinka M, Vaculík M, et al., 2011. Root responses to cadmium in the rhizosphere: a review. J Exp Bot, 62(1): 21-37.

[49]Martin SR, Llugany M, Barceló J, et al., 2012. Cadmium exclusion a key factor in differential Cd-resistance in Thlaspi arvense ecotypes. Biol Plant, 56(4):729-734.

[50]Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China, 2012. GB 2762-2012: National Food Standard. Maximum Levels of Contaminats in Foods.

[51]Mitchell LG, Grant CA, Racz GJ, 2000. Effect of nitrogen application on concentration of cadmium and nutrient ions in soil solution and in durum wheat. Can J Soil Sci, 80(1):107-115.

[52]Nuzahath A, Abdukadir A, Dilnur M, 2013. Effect of phosphorus on chemical forms and physiological properties of cadmium in Fragaia ananassa D. J Soil Sci, 44(6): 1460-1464 (in Chinese).

[53]Qiu Q, Wang Y, Yang Z, et al., 2011. Effects of phosphorus supplied in soil on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in two Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars differing in cadmium accumulation. Food Chem Toxicol, 49(9):2260-2267.

[54]Sharma A, Sainger M, Dwivedi S, et al., 2010. Genotypic variation in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. cultivars in growth, nitrate assimilation, antioxidant responses and phytoremediation potential during cadmium stress. J Environ Biol, 31(5):773-780.

[55]Sørensen JN, Johansen AS, Poulsen N, 1994. Influence of growth conditions on the value of crisphead lettuce. 1. Marketable and nutritional quality as affected by nitrogen supply, cultivar and plant age. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 46(1):1-11.

[56]Stagnari F, Galieni A, Pisante M, 2015. Shading and nitrogen management affect quality, safety and yield of greenhouse-grown leaf lettuce. Sci Hortic, 192:70-79.

[57]Sugiyama M, Ae N, Hajika M, 2011. Developing of a simple method for screening soybean seedling cadmium accumulation to select soybean genotypes with low seed cadmium. Plant Soil, 341(1-2):413-422.

[58]Tang L, Luo WJ, Tian SK, et al., 2016. Genotypic differences in cadmium and nitrate co-accumulation among the Chinese cabbage genotypes under field conditions. Sci Hortic, 201:92-100.

[59]Tang L, Luo WJ, Chen WK, et al., 2017. Field crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Brassica chinensis L.) for phytoremediation of cadmium and nitrate co-contaminated soils via rotation with Sedum alfredii Hance. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 24(23):19293-19305.

[60]Uraguchi S, Mori S, Kuramata M, et al., 2009. Root-to-shoot Cd translocation via the xylem is the major process determining shoot and grain cadmium accumulation in rice. J Exp Bot, 60(9):2677-2688.

[61]Wang GL, Ding GD, Li L, et al., 2014. Identification and characterization of improved nitrogen efficiency in interspecific hybridized new-type Brassica napus. Ann Bot, 114(3):549-559.

[62]Wang JL, Fang W, Yang ZY, et al., 2007. Inter- and intraspecific variations of cadmium accumulation of 13 leafy vegetable species in a greenhouse experiment. J Agric Food Chem, 55(22):9118-9123.

[63]Wang JL, Yuan JG, Yang ZY, et al., 2009. Variation in cadmium accumulation among 30 cultivars and cadmium subcellular distribution in 2 selected cultivars of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.). J Agric Food Chem, 57(19):8942-8949.

[64]Wang X, Shi Y, Chen X, et al., 2015. Screening of Cd-safe genotypes of Chinese cabbage in field condition and Cd accumulation in relation to organic acids in two typical genotypes under long-term Cd stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 22(21):16590-16599.

[65]Wang Y, Shen H, Xu L, et al., 2015. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Front Plant Sci, 6:293.

[66]Wojciechowska R, Kołton A, 2014. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars to accumulate nitrates. Acta Agrobot, 67(1):27-32.

[67]Wu FB, Zhang G, 2002. Genotypic differences in effect of Cd on growth and mineral concentrations in barley seedlings. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 69(2):219-227.

[68]Xin JL, Huang BF, Yang ZY, et al., 2010. Responses of different water spinach cultivars and their hybrid to Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb exposures. J Hazard Mater, 175(1-3):468-476.

[69]Xin JL, Huang BF, Yang JZ, et al., 2013a. Role of roots in cadmium accumulation of two water spinach cultivars: reciprocal grafting and histochemical experiments. Plant Soil, 366(1-2):425-432.

[70]Xin JL, Huang BF, Yang ZY, et al., 2013b. Comparison of cadmium subcellular distribution in different organs of two water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) cultivars. Plant Soil, 372(1-2):431-444.

[71]Xu GH, Fan XR, Miller AJ, 2012. Plant nitrogen assimilation and use efficiency. Annu Rev Plant Biol, 63:153-182.

[72]Yin AG, Yang ZY, Ebbs S, et al., 2016. Effects of phosphorus on chemical forms of Cd in plants of four spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) cultivars differing in Cd accumulation. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 23(6):5753-5762.

[73]Yu H, Wang JL, Fang W, et al., 2006. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice. Sci Total Environ, 370(2-3):302-309.

[74]Zhang GP, Fukami M, Sekimoto H, 2002. Influence of cadmium on mineral concentrations and yield components in wheat genotypes differing in Cd tolerance at seedling stage. Field Crop Res, 77(2-3):93-98.

[75]Zheng SN, Zhang MK, 2011. Effect of moisture regime on the redistribution of heavy metals in paddy soil. J Environ Sci, 23(3):434-443.

[76]Zhou ZY, Wang MJ, Wang JS, 2000. Nitrate and nitrite contamination in vegetables in China. Food Rev Int, 16(1): 61-76.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE