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Long LI


Fangxia YANG




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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2023 Vol.24 No.9 P.807-822


Genetic and histological relationship between pheromone-secreting tissues of the musk gland and skin of juvenile Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)

Author(s):  Long LI, Heran CAO, Jinmeng YANG, Tianqi JIN, Yuxuan MA, Yang WANG, Zhenpeng LI, Yining CHEN, Huihui GAO, Chao ZHU, Tianhao YANG, Yalong DENG, Fangxia YANG, Wuzi DONG

Affiliation(s):  College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   dongwuzi@nwsuaf.edu.cn, yangfangxia@nwsuaf.edu.cn

Key Words:  Forest musk deer, Pheromones, Musk gland, Skin tissues, Transcriptome, Sebaceous gland

Long LI, Heran CAO, Jinmeng YANG, Tianqi JIN, Yuxuan MA, Yang WANG, Zhenpeng LI, Yining CHEN, Huihui GAO, Chao ZHU, Tianhao YANG, Yalong DENG, Fangxia YANG, Wuzi DONG. Genetic and histological relationship between pheromone-secreting tissues of the musk gland and skin of juvenile Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2023, 24(9): 807-822.

@article{title="Genetic and histological relationship between pheromone-secreting tissues of the musk gland and skin of juvenile Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)",
author="Long LI, Heran CAO, Jinmeng YANG, Tianqi JIN, Yuxuan MA, Yang WANG, Zhenpeng LI, Yining CHEN, Huihui GAO, Chao ZHU, Tianhao YANG, Yalong DENG, Fangxia YANG, Wuzi DONG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Genetic and histological relationship between pheromone-secreting tissues of the musk gland and skin of juvenile Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)
%A Long LI
%A Heran CAO
%A Jinmeng YANG
%A Tianqi JIN
%A Yuxuan MA
%A Yang WANG
%A Zhenpeng LI
%A Yining CHEN
%A Huihui GAO
%A Chao ZHU
%A Tianhao YANG
%A Yalong DENG
%A Fangxia YANG
%A Wuzi DONG
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 24
%N 9
%P 807-822
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2023
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B2200692

T1 - Genetic and histological relationship between pheromone-secreting tissues of the musk gland and skin of juvenile Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)
A1 - Long LI
A1 - Heran CAO
A1 - Jinmeng YANG
A1 - Tianqi JIN
A1 - Yuxuan MA
A1 - Yang WANG
A1 - Zhenpeng LI
A1 - Yining CHEN
A1 - Huihui GAO
A1 - Chao ZHU
A1 - Tianhao YANG
A1 - Yalong DENG
A1 - Fangxia YANG
A1 - Wuzi DONG
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 24
IS - 9
SP - 807
EP - 822
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2023
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B2200692

BackgroundThe musk glands of adult male Chinese forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929) (FMD), which are considered as special skin glands, secrete a mixture of sebum, lipids, and proteins into the musk pod. Together, these components form musk, which plays an important role in attracting females during the breeding season. However, the relationship between the musk glands and skin of Chinese FMD remains undiscovered. Here, the musk gland and skin of Chinese FMD were examined using histological analysis and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and the expression of key regulatory genes was evaluated to determine whether the musk gland is derived from the skin.
MethodsA comparative analysis of musk gland anatomy between juvenile and adult Chinese FMD was conducted. Then, based on the anatomical structure of the musk gland, skin tissues from the abdomen and back as well as musk gland tissues were obtained from three juvenile FMD. These tissues were used for RNA-seq, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot (WB), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments.
ResultsAnatomical analysis showed that only adult male FMD had a complete glandular organ and musk pod, while juvenile FMD did not have any well-developed musk pods. Transcriptomic data revealed that 88.24% of genes were co-expressed in the skin and musk gland tissues. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway analysis found that the genes co-expressed in the abdomen skin, back skin, and musk gland were enriched in biological development, endocrine system, lipid metabolism, and other pathways. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that the genes expressed in these tissues were enriched in biological processes such as multicellular development and cell division. Moreover, the Metascape predictive analysis tool demonstrated that genes expressed in musk glands were skin tissue-specific. qRT-PCR and WB revealed that sex-determining region Y-box protein 9 (Sox9), Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), and androgen receptor (AR) were expressed in all three tissues, although the expression levels differed among the tissues. According to the IHC results, Sox9 and AR were expressed in the nuclei of sebaceous gland, hair follicle, and musk gland cells, whereas Cav-1 was expressed in the cell membrane.
ConclusionsThe musk gland of Chinese FMD may be a derivative of skin tissue, and Sox9, Cav-1, and AR may play significant roles in musk gland development.

中国幼年林麝(Moschus berezovskii Flerov, 1929)香腺和皮肤分泌信息素的遗传和组织学关系



Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


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