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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE C 2014 Vol.15 No.7 P.489-513

10.1631/jzus.C1300332


Unicast routing protocols for urban vehicular networks: review, taxonomy, and open research issues


Author(s):  Syed Adeel Ali Shah, Muhammad Shiraz, Mostofa Kamal Nasir, Rafidah Binti Md Noor

Affiliation(s):  Mobile Ad Hoc Technology Lab, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia

Corresponding email(s):   adeelbanuri@siswa.um.edu.my, muh_shiraz@um.edu.my, kamal.mostofa@gmail.com, fidah@um.edu.um

Key Words:  Unicast protocols, Taxonomy, Protocol review, Vehicular ad hoc networks, Geographic routing


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Syed Adeel Ali Shah, Muhammad Shiraz, Mostofa Kamal Nasir, Rafidah Binti Md Noor. Unicast routing protocols for urban vehicular networks: review, taxonomy, and open research issues[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science C, 2014, 15(7): 489-513.

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doi="10.1631/jzus.C1300332"
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Abstract: 
Over the past few years, numerous traffic safety applications have been developed using vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). These applications represent public interest and require network-wide dissemination techniques. On the other hand, certain non-safety applications do not require network-wide dissemination techniques. Such applications can be characterized by their individual interest between two vehicles that are geographically apart. In the existing literature, several proposals of unicast protocols exist that can be used for these non-safety applications. Among the proposals, unicast protocols for city scenarios are considered to be most challenging. This implies that in city scenarios unicast protocols show minimal persistence towards highly dynamic vehicular characteristics, including mobility, road structure, and physical environment. Unlike other studies, this review is motivated by the diversity of vehicular characteristics and difficulty of unicast protocol adaption in city scenarios. The review starts with the categorization of unicast protocols for city scenarios according to their requirement for a predefined unicast path. Then, properties of typical city roads are discussed, which helps to explore limitations in efficient unicast communication. Through an exhaustive literature review, we propose a thematic taxonomy based on different aspects of unicast protocol operation. It is followed by a review of selected unicast protocols for city scenarios that reveal their fundamental characteristics. Several significant parameters from the taxonomy are used to qualitatively compare the reviewed protocols. Qualitative comparison also includes critical investigation of distinct approaches taken by researchers in experimental protocol evaluation. As an outcome of this review, we point out open research issues in unicast routing.

城市车辆网络的单播路由协议:综述、分类法和开放性研究问题

中文概要:近来,基于车载自组织网络,产生了大量车辆安全应用,这类应用考量公共利益,使用全网传播技术。与之相比,有一类无关安全的应用,考量的是位置不同的两车之间的利益,并不需要全网传播技术。已有文献提出将单播协议用于这些无关安全的应用,其中,针对城市场景的单播协议应用被认为最具挑战性,因为此种情形下,车辆特性(包括机动性、道路结构、自然环境等)极其多变,单播协议持久性最差。本综述围绕城市场景中车辆特性多样、单播协议适应难的特点而展开。首先,根据对预先定义单播路径的需求,将应用于城市场景的单播协议进行分类;之后,讨论了典型城市道路的特性,以利于探讨高效单播通信的限制所在。基于广泛的文献综述,针对单播协议操作的不同方面,提出一种分类方法。进一步,综述了最能体现城市场景根本特性的单播协议,并针对分类方法采用的几个重要参数,对这些协议作定性比较。同时,比较了用于协议实验评估的显著方法。最后,指出单播路由的开放性研究问题。
单播协议;分类法;协议综述;车载自组织网络;地理位置路由

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