Full Text:   <795>

CLC number: TP391.41

On-line Access: 2016-11-07

Received: 2015-05-20

Revision Accepted: 2016-02-16

Crosschecked: 2016-10-17

Cited: 0

Clicked: 2172

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


M. F. Kazemi


A. H. Mazinan


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering  2016 Vol.17 No.11 P.1199-1217


Level-direction decomposition analysis with a focus on image watermarking framework

Author(s):  M. F. Kazemi, M. A. Pourmina, A. H. Mazinan

Affiliation(s):  Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; more

Corresponding email(s):   mfkazemi@srbiau.ac.ir, pourmina@srbiau.ac.ir, mazinan@azad.ac.ir

Key Words:  Level-direction decomposition analysis, Watermarking framework, Contourlet embedding representation, Scrambling module, Simulated attacks

M. F. Kazemi, M. A. Pourmina, A. H. Mazinan. Level-direction decomposition analysis with a focus on image watermarking framework[J]. Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2016, 17(11): 1199-1217.

@article{title="Level-direction decomposition analysis with a focus on image watermarking framework",
author="M. F. Kazemi, M. A. Pourmina, A. H. Mazinan",
journal="Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Level-direction decomposition analysis with a focus on image watermarking framework
%A M. F. Kazemi
%A M. A. Pourmina
%A A. H. Mazinan
%J Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
%V 17
%N 11
%P 1199-1217
%@ 2095-9184
%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/FITEE.1500165

T1 - Level-direction decomposition analysis with a focus on image watermarking framework
A1 - M. F. Kazemi
A1 - M. A. Pourmina
A1 - A. H. Mazinan
J0 - Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering
VL - 17
IS - 11
SP - 1199
EP - 1217
%@ 2095-9184
Y1 - 2016
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/FITEE.1500165

This research addresses the new level-direction decomposition in the area of image watermarking as the further development of investigations. The main process of realizing a watermarking framework is to generate a watermarked image with a focus on contourlet embedding representation. The approach performance is evaluated through several indices including the peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity, whereby a set of attacks are carried out using a module of simulated attacks. The obtained information is analyzed through a set of images, using different color models, to enable the calculation of normal correlation. The module of the inverse of contourlet embedding representation is correspondingly employed to obtain the present watermarked image, as long as a number of original images are applied to a scrambling module, to represent the information in disorder. This allows us to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach by analyzing a complicated system, where a decision making system is designed to find the best level and the corresponding direction regarding contourlet embedding representation. The results are illustrated in appropriate level-direction decomposition. The key contribution lies in using a new integration of a set of subsystems, employed based upon the novel mechanism in contourlet embedding representation, in association with the decision making system. The presented approach is efficient compared with state-of-the-art approaches, under a number of serious attacks. A number of benchmarks are obtained and considered along with the proposed framework outcomes. The results support our ideas.

The article presented watermarking in contourlet transform.


概要:本文研究新型层级-方向分解在图像水印中的应用。实现水印框架的主要步骤是生成带有水印的图像,重点用到轮廓小波嵌入表达。通过一组模拟攻击,基于峰值信噪比(peak signal-to-noise ratio)、结构相似度(structural similarity)等指标评估其性能。利用一组图像并使用不同颜色模型分析所获信息,以判断正态相关性。相应地,每当扰码模块作用于一组原始图像,用以表示无序信息,就使用逆轮廓小波嵌入表达以获取带有水印的图像。从而,我们可以通过分析一个复杂系统--其中设计了一个决策系统,使用轮廓小波嵌入表达来发现最优层级和相应方向--评估所提方法的性能。对于所得到的结果,利用恰当的层级-方向分解阐释。本文主要贡献在于,在轮廓小波嵌入表达新机制的基础上,集成一套子系统,与决策系统相配合。与现有方法相比,本文所述方法在大量重度攻击下仍然有效。利用多个基准数据集对所提方案进行了测试,结果证实方法有效。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abdallah, H.A., Ghazy, R.A., Kasban, H., et al., 2014. Homomorphic image watermarking with a singular value decomposition algorithm. Inform. Process. Manag., 50(6):909-923.

[2]Agarwal, C., Mishra, A., Sharma, A., 2013. Gray-scale image watermarking using GA-BPN hybrid network. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., 24(7):1135-1146.

[3]Agarwal, C., Mishra, A., Sharma, A., 2015. A novel gray-scale image watermarking using hybrid Fuzzy-BPN architecture. Egypt. Inform. J., 16(1):83-102.

[4]Ali, M., Ahn, C.W., 2015. Comments on “Optimized gray-scale image watermarking using DWT-SVD and firefly algorithm”. Exp. Syst. Appl., 42(5):2392-2394.

[5]Ali, M., Ahn, C.W., Pant, M., et al., 2015. An image watermarking scheme in wavelet domain with optimized compensation of singular value decomposition via artificial bee colony. Inform. Sci., 301:44-60.

[6]Al-Otum, H.M., 2014. Semi-fragile watermarking for grayscale image authentication and tamper detection based on an adjusted expanded-bit multiscale quantization-based technique. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., 25(5): 1064-1081.

[7]Cai, N., Zhu, N.N., Weng, S.W., et al., 2015. Difference angle quantization index modulation scheme for image watermarking. Signal Process. Image Commun., 34:52-60.

[8]Chen, B.J., Coatrieux, G., Chen, G., et al., 2014. Full 4-D quaternion discrete Fourier transform based watermarking for color images. Dig. Signal Process., 28:106-119.

[9]Chen, H.Y., Zhu, Y.S., 2012. A robust watermarking algorithm based on QR factorization and DCT using quantization index modulation technique. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. C (Comput. & Electron.), 13(8):573-584.

[10]Dadkhah, S., Manaf, A.A., Hori, Y., et al., 2014. An effective SVD-based image tampering detection and self-recovery using active watermarking. Signal Process. Image Commun., 29(10):1197-1210.

[11]Dinh, D.L., Lim, M.J., Thang, N.D., et al., 2014. Real-time 3D human pose recovery from a single depth image using principal direction analysis. Appl. Intell., 41(2):473-486.

[12]Do, M.N., Vetterli, M., 2001. Pyramidal directional filter banks and curvelets. Proc. Int. Conf. on Image Processing.

[13]Guo, J.M., Prasetyo, H., 2014. False-positive-free SVD-based image watermarking. J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent., 25(5):1149-1163.

[14]Lei, B.Y., Tan, E.L., Chen, S.P., et al., 2014. Reversible watermarking scheme for medical image based on differential evolution. Exp. Syst. Appl., 41(7):3178-3188.

[15]Makbol, N.M., Khoo, B.E., 2014. A new robust and secure digital image watermarking scheme based on the integer wavelet transform and singular value decomposition. Dig. Signal Process., 33:134-147.

[16]Mishra, A., Agarwal, C., Sharma, A., et al., 2014. Optimized gray-scale image watermarking using DWT–SVD and Firefly Algorithm. Exp. Syst. Appl., 41(17):7858-7867.

[17]Niu, P.P., Wang, X.Y., Yang, Y.P., et al., 2011. A novel color image watermarking scheme in nonsampled contourlet-domain. Exp. Syst. Appl., 38(3):2081-2098.

[18]Ouyang, J., Coatrieux, G., Chen, B., et al., 2015. Color image watermarking based on quaternion Fourier transform and improved uniform log-polar mapping. Comput. Electr. Eng., 38(3):2081-2098.

[19]Qi, M., Li, B.Z., Sun, H.F., 2015. Image watermarking using polar harmonic transform with parameters in SL (2, R). Signal Process. Image Commun., 31:161-173.

[20]Shao, Z.H., Duan, Y.P., Coatrieux, G., et al., 2015. Combining double random phase encoding for color image watermarking in quaternion gyrator domain. Opt. Commun., 343:56-65.

[21]Su, Q.T., Niu, Y.G., Wang, G., et al., 2014. Color image blind watermarking scheme based on QR decomposition. Signal Process., 94:219-235.

[22]Tao, H., Li, C.M., Zain, J.M., et al., 2014. Robust image watermarking theories and techniques: a review. J. Appl. Res. Technol., 12(1):122-138.

[23]Tsougenis, E.D., Papakostas, G.A., Koulouriotis, D.E., et al., 2013. Towards adaptivity of image watermarking in polar harmonic transforms domain. Opt. Laser Technol., 54:84-97.

[24]Tsougenis, E.D., Papakostas, G.A., Koulouriotis, D.E., et al., 2014. Adaptive color image watermarking by the use of quaternion image moments. Exp. Syst. Appl., 41(14): 6408-6418.

[25]Wang, H., Ho, A.T.S., Li, S.J., 2014. A novel image restoration scheme based on structured side information and its application to image watermarking. Signal Process. Image Commun., 29(7):773-787.

[26]Wang, X.Y., Niu, P.P., Yang, H.Y., et al., 2014. A new robust color image watermarking using local quaternion exponent moments. Inform. Sci., 277:731-754.

[27]Yadav, A.K., Vashisth, S., Singh, H., et al., 2015. A phase-image watermarking scheme in gyrator domain using Devil’s vortex Fresnel lens as a phase mask. Opt. Commun., 344(1):172-180.

[28]Yang, H.Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, P., et al., 2014. A geometric correction based robust color image watermarking scheme using quaternion exponent moments. Optik Int. J. Light Electron Opt., 125(16):4456-4469.

[29]Yu, M., Wang, J., Jiang, G.Y., et al., 2015. New fragile watermarking method for stereo image authentication with localization and recovery. AEU Int. J. Electron. Commun., 69(1):361-370.

[30]Zhan, Y.Z., Li, Y.T., Wang, X.Y., et al., 2014. A blind watermarking algorithm for 3D mesh models based on vertex curvature. J. Zhejiang Univ.-Sci. C (Comput. & Electron.) 15(5):351-362.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE