Full Text:   <2000>

CLC number: X7

On-line Access: 

Received: 2006-07-17

Revision Accepted: 2006-09-26

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 24

Clicked: 4200

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2006 Vol.7 No.12 P.974~980


Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate


Affiliation(s):  Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Government of Punjab, Kala Shah Kaku, Pakistan; more

Corresponding email(s):   a.khan@uws.edu.au

Key Words:  Industrial effluents, Biological oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, Residual salts, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Nickel, Manganese, Sewage

SIAL R.A., CHAUDHARY M.F., ABBAS S.T., LATIF M.I., KHAN A.G.. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2006, 7(12): 974~980.

@article{title="Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 7
%N 12
%P 974~980
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2006
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0974

T1 - Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate
A1 - SIAL R.A.
A1 - KHAN A.G.
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 7
IS - 12
SP - 974
EP - 980
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2006
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2006.B0974

Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pHarmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of pHp?wd=%28industrial effluents%29&ck%5B%5D=abstract&ck%5B%5D=keyword'>industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pHarmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine if these effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), pHp?wd=%28biological oxygen demand (BOD)%29&ck%5B%5D=abstract&ck%5B%5D=keyword'>biological oxygen demand (BOD), pHp?wd=%28chemical oxygen demand (COD)%29&ck%5B%5D=abstract&ck%5B%5D=keyword'>chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries are also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment otherwise that may cause toxicity to soil, plants and animals as well add to the problems of salinity and sododicity. Similarly, these effluents cannot be used for fish farming.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Abbas, S.T., 1991. Salt Toleration in Pakistan Rice Varieties through Tissue Culture. Ph.D Thesis, MDS University, Ajmeer, India.

[2] Agarwal, S.K., 1999. Studies on the effect of the auto exhaust emission on the Mitragyna patriflora. Master Thesis, MDS University, Ajmeer, India.

[3] Ali, K., Javid, M.A., Javid, M., 1996. Pollution and Industrial Waste. 6th National Congress Soil Sci., Lahore, p.122-131.

[4] ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), 1993. Toxicological Profile of Cadmium. Atlanta. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.

[5] Baisberg-Påhlsson, A.M., 1989. Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) to vascular plants. Water, Air Soil Pollut., 47(3-4):287-319.

[6] Bock, R., 1979. A Handbook of Decomposition Methods in Analytical Chemistry. International Texbook Company, Glasgow.

[7] Bohn, H.L., McNeal, B.L., O'Connor, G.A.K., 1976. Soil Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[8] Chaudhry, T.M., Hayes, W.J., Khan, A.G., Khoo, C.H., 1998. Phytoremediation-focusing on accumulator plants that remediate metal-contaminated soils. Australas. J. Ecotoxicol., 4:37-51.

[9] David, H.F.L., Bela, G.L., Paul, A.B., 1996. Environmental Engineers Handbook, 2nd Ed. Lewis Publishers, New York.

[10] Degraeve, N., 1981. Carcinogenic taratogenic and mutagenic effects of cadmium. Mutat. Res., 86:115-135.

[11] FAO, 1984. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Guide. Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome.

[12] Ghafoor, A., Rauf, A., Arif, M., Muzaffar, W., 1994. Chemical composition of effluents from different industries of the Faisalabad city. Pak. J. Agric. Res. Sci., 31:367-369.

[13] Government of Pakistan, 1991. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Environment and Urban Affair Division, Islamabad, Pakistan.

[14] Groten, J.P., Vanbladeren, P., 1994. Cadmium bioavailability and health risk in food. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 5(2):50-55.

[15] Gulfraz, M., Afzal, H., Malik, A.A., Asrar, M., Hayat, M.A., 1997. A study of water pollution caused by the effluent of various studies located in the vicinity of Sohan River. Pak. J. Sci., 49(1-2):13-17.

[16] Gulfraz, M., Mussaddeq, Y., Khannum, R., Ahmad, T., 2002. Quality assessment of effluents from various industries in the vicinity of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. On Line J. Biol. Sci., 2(10):697-698.

[17] Hayes, A.W., 1984. Principals and Methods in Toxicology. Raven Press, NY.

[18] Hayes, W.J., Chaudhry, T.M., Buckney, R.T., Khan, A.G., 2003. Phytoaccumulation of trace metals at the Sunny Corner Mine, New South Wales, with suggestions for a possible remediation strategy. Australas. J. Ecotoxicol., 9:69-82.

[19] Hussain, Z., Chaudhry, M.R., Zuberi, F.A., Hussain, Q., Sharif, M., 1996. Contaminants and the Soil Environment of Pakistan. In: Naidu, R., Kookana, R.S., Oliver, D.P., Rogers, S., McLaughlin, M.J. (Eds.), Contaminants and the Soil Environment in the Australia-Pacific Region. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, p.629-646.

[20] Iannelli, M.A., Pietrini, F., Flore, L., Petrilli, L., Massacci, A., 2002. Antioxidant response to cadmium in Phragmites australis plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 40(11):977-982.

[21] Irshad, A., Ali, S., Jan, M.R., 1997. Physico-Chemical Studies of Industrial Pollutants. NSMTCC’97 on Environment Pollution. Islamabad, Pakistan.

[22] Khan, A.G., 2006a. Developing Sustainable Contamination by Reversing Land Degradation through a Miracle Plant, Vetiver Grass. In: Warren, M., Yarwood, R. (Eds.), the Rural Citizen: Governance, Culture, and Wellbeing in the 21st Century. University of Plymouth, UK, p.1-8.

[23] Khan, A.G., 2006b. Mycorrhizoremediation—an enhanced form of phytoremediation. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 7(7):503-514.

[24] Khan, A.G., Chaudhry, T.M., Hayes, W.J., Khoo, C.H., Hill, L., Fernandez, R., Gallardo, P., 1998. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a steelworks waste site at Port Kembla, NSW, Australia. Water, Air Soil Pollut., 104(3/4):389-402.

[25] Khan, A.G., Kuek, C., Chaudhry, T.M., Khoo, C.S., Hayes, W.J., 2000. The role of plants, mycorrhizoe, and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. Chemosphere, 41(1-2):197-207.

[26] Løbersli, E.M., Steinnes, E., 1988. Metal uptake in plants from a birch forest area near a copper smelter in Norway. Water, Air Soil Pollut., 37(1-2):25.

[27] Lone, M.I., Rizwan, M., 1997. Evolution of Industrial Effluents for Irrigation and Their Effect on Soil and Chemical Properties. Proc. NSMTCC 97 Environment Pollution. Islamabad, Pakistan, p.269-280.

[28] Malik, D.M., Khan, M.Z., Chaudhary, T.A., 1984. Analysis Manual for Soils, Plants and Waters. Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute, Dep. of Agric. Punjab, Lahore.

[29] Mian, Z., Ahmed, T., Rashid, A., 1998. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Water of River Sawan due to Effluents in Industrial Area. Proc. of Int. Sym. on Agro-Environmental issues and Future Strategies: Towards 21st Century. UA Faisalabad, Pakistan.

[30] Mufti, S.A., Woods, C.A., Hasan, S.A., 1997. Biodiversity of Pakistan. Pakistan Museum Natural History, Islamabad.

[31] Nyle, C.B., 1984. The Nature and Properties of Soils. Macmillan Pub. Co. NY.

[32] Qadir, M., Ghafoor, A., Hussain, S.T., Murtaza, G., Muhammad, T., 1998. Metal Ion Contamination in Vegetables and Soils Irrigated with City Effluent. Third National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan.

[33] Rauser, W.E., 1990. Phytochelatins. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 59(1):61-86.

[34] Robson, A.J., Neal, C., 1997. Regional water quality of the River Tweed. Sci. Total Environ., 194-195:173-192.

[35] Saleemi, M.A., 1993. Environmental Assessment and Management of Irrigation and Drainage Scheme for Sustainable Agricultural Growth. EPA Bulletin, Lahore, Pakistan.

[36] Sanità di Toppi, L., Gabbrielli, R., 1999. Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environ. Exp. Bot., 41(2):105-130.

[37] Schnitzer, M., 1978. Humic Substances: Chemistry and Reactions. In: Schnitzer, M., Khan, S.U. (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter, Chapter 1. Elsevier, NY.

[38] Sharma, H.C., Lai, C., 1998. Sugar Mill Effluent Quality and Suitability for Irrigation. Agron 98: International Symposium. UA Faisalabad, Pakistan.

[39] Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute, 1972. Recommendations for Irrigation Water. Directorate of Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing, Punjab.

[40] Totawal, K.L., Somani, L.L., Vuas, P.R., 1996. Pollution through Agro-Chemicals. In: Somani, L.L. (Ed.), Ecological Crisis and Environmental Protection, p.207-253.

[41] US Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. USDA Hand Book 60. US Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.

[42] Wagner, G.J., 1993. Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv. Agron., 51:173-212.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE