Full Text:   <1192>

Summary:  <383>

CLC number: TB651

On-line Access: 2015-11-04

Received: 2014-09-24

Revision Accepted: 2015-03-01

Crosschecked: 2015-10-12

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1876

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Li-min Qiu

http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1943-8902

Kai Fang

http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5214-6111

-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2015 Vol.16 No.11 P.910-921

10.1631/jzus.A1400296


Temperature inhomogeneity in high capacity pulse tube cryocoolers


Author(s):  Kai Fang, Li-min Qiu, Xiao Jiang, Zhi-hua Gan, Ning-xiang Tong

Affiliation(s):  Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China

Corresponding email(s):   Limin.qiu@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Temperature inhomogeneity, Internal streaming, High capacity, Pulse tube cryocooler


Kai Fang, Li-min Qiu, Xiao Jiang, Zhi-hua Gan, Ning-xiang Tong. Temperature inhomogeneity in high capacity pulse tube cryocoolers[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2015, 16(11): 910-921.

@article{title="Temperature inhomogeneity in high capacity pulse tube cryocoolers",
author="Kai Fang, Li-min Qiu, Xiao Jiang, Zhi-hua Gan, Ning-xiang Tong",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
volume="16",
number="11",
pages="910-921",
year="2015",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.A1400296"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Temperature inhomogeneity in high capacity pulse tube cryocoolers
%A Kai Fang
%A Li-min Qiu
%A Xiao Jiang
%A Zhi-hua Gan
%A Ning-xiang Tong
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 16
%N 11
%P 910-921
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2015
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1400296

TY - JOUR
T1 - Temperature inhomogeneity in high capacity pulse tube cryocoolers
A1 - Kai Fang
A1 - Li-min Qiu
A1 - Xiao Jiang
A1 - Zhi-hua Gan
A1 - Ning-xiang Tong
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 16
IS - 11
SP - 910
EP - 921
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2015
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1400296


Abstract: 
High power pulse tube cryocoolers are expected to be a very promising candidate for high temperature superconductors (HTS) cooling. Unfortunately there are still some problems significantly deteriorating the performance of these cryocoolers, one of which is temperature inhomogeneity. Several different theories have been proposed to explain the mechanism and many factors have been indicated as contributors to the generation and development of temperature inhomogeneity. However, some relations between these factors are seldom noticed, nor classified. The underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. The paper classifies, as internal and external, factors leading to temperature inhomogeneity based on their location. We examine some apparently unreasonable assumptions that have been made and difficulties in simulation and measurement. Theoretical and experimental research on the driving mechanism and suppression of temperature inhomogeneity is reviewed, and potential analysis and measurement methods which could be used in future are identified.

This paper gives a good overview on the state of the art in understanding the causes and effects of the regenerator streaming effect.

大功率脉管制冷机的温度非均匀性

目的:大功率脉管制冷机中存在的温度非均匀性问题导致回热器效率低下,严重阻碍制冷机性能的提高。本文回顾回热器非均匀性问题的理论与试验研究,对当前理论与实验的研究结果进行细致的分类与探讨,并展望将来非均匀性研究可能的发展方向。
方法:1. 当前回热器非均匀性理论与实验研究主要包括形成机理、发展机制和抑制方法三个方面。其中对其形成机理和发展机制的研究以理论为主,抑制方法的研究以实验为主。2. 回热器温度非均匀性的形成机理,按照其诱发因素的来源可划分为内源性与外源性因素,其中内源性因素包括与回热器相关和变径流道等,外源性因素包括自然对流效应及外界温度扰动。3. 发展机制主要认为是气体粘度与温度之间的正向关系导致的回热器内温度与流阻的正反馈效应。4. 抑制方法主要是增加回热器内径向热导率,阻断其发展机制,或增加回热器长径比,抑制其影响范围。
结论:1. 温度非均匀性形成机制复杂,为多因素耦合作用;2. 气体粘度与温度之间的正向关系导致的回热器内温度与流阻的正反馈效应是导致非均匀性发展的主要因素;3. 增加回热器径向热导率和回热器长径比可有效抑制非均匀性。

关键词:温度非均匀性;内部流;大功率;脉管制冷机

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1]Andersen, S.K., Dietrich, M., Carlsen, H., et al., 2007. Numerical study on transverse asymmetry in the temperature profile of a regenerator in a pulse tube cooler. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 50(13-14):2795-2804.

[2]Chen, R.L., Henzler, G.W., Royal, J.H., et al., 2010. Reliability test of a 1 kW pulse tube cryocooler for HTS cable application. Cryogenics Engineering Conference, Tucson, Arizona, USA, p.727-735.

[3]Daniel, W.J.W., 2007. High-Power Cryocooling. PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University, the Netherlands.

[4]de Waele, A.T.A.M., Sun, D.M., Fang, K., 2013. Stability of high aspect ratio cryocooler regenerators. International Conference of Cryogenics and Refrigeration, Hangzhou, China, p.A2-42.

[5]Dietrich, M., Thummes, G., 2010. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube cooler for refrigeration at 25 K. Cryogenics, 50(4):281-286.

[6]Dietrich, M., Yang, L.W., Thummes, G., 2007. High-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler: observation and reduction of regenerator temperature-inhomogeneities. Cryogenics, 47(5-6):306-314.

[7]Ercolani, E., Poncet, J.M., Charles, I., et al., 2008. Design and prototyping of a large capacity high frequency pulse tube. Cryogenics, 48(9-10):439-447.

[8]Fang, K., Qiu, L.M., Liu, D.H., et al., 2012. Effect of non-uniform porosity on temperature inhomogeneity in the regenerator of high power Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers. 24th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Fukuoka, Japan, p.347-350.

[9]Garaway, I., Taylor, R., Lewis, M., et al., 2009a. Infrared imaging as a means of characterizing flow and temperature instabilities within pulse tube cryocoolers. 15th International Cryocooler Conference, Long Beach, California, USA, p.1-9.

[10]Garaway, I., Taylor, R., Lewis, M., et al., 2009b. Characterizing flow and temperature instabilities within pulse tube cryocoolers using infrared imaging. 15th International Cryocooler Conference, Long Beach, California, USA, p.233-240.

[11]Gedeon, D., 1997. DC gas flow in Stirling and pules tube cryocoolers. 9th International Cryocooler Conference, Waterville Valley, New Hampshire, USA, p.385-392.

[12]Gedeon, D., 2004. Flow circulations in foil-type regenerators produced by non-uniform layer spacing. 13th International Cryocooler Conference, New Orleans, USA, p.421-430.

[13]Gromoll, B., Huber, N., Dietrich, M., et al., 2006. Development of a 25 K pulse tube refrigerator for future HTS-series products in power engineering. 22nd Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Keystone, Colorado, USA, p.643-652.

[14]Imura, J., Shinoki, S., Sato, T., et al., 2006. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. 19th International Symposium on Superconductivity, Nagoya, Japan, p.1369-1371.

[15]Imura, J., Iwata, N., Yamamoto, H., et al., 2008. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. 20th International Symposium on Superconductivity, Tsukuba, Japan, p.2178-2180.

[16]Kirkconnell, C.S., 1999. Experimental investigation of a unique pulse tube expander design. 10th International Cryocooler Conference, Monterey, California, USA, p.239-247.

[17]Lewis, M.A., Taylor, R.P., Bradley, P.E., et al., 2009. Pulse tube cryocooler for rapid cool down of a superconducting magnet. 15th International Cryocooler Conference, Long Beach, California, USA, p.167-176.

[18]Lewis, M.A., Taylor, R.P., Radebaugh, R., et al., 2010. Investigation of flow nonuniformities in a large 50 K pulse tube cryocooler. Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Tucson, Tennessee, USA, p.68-75.

[19]Li, Z.P., Jiang, Y.L., Gan, Z.H., et al., 2014. Performance of a precooled 4 K Stirling type high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with Gd2O2S. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 15(7):508-516.

[20]Liu, D.H., Qiu, L.M., Gan, Z.H., et al., 2011. Study on temperature inhomogeneity in regenerator of high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers based on two parallel regenerator model. Cryogenics, (6):4-8 (in Chinese).

[21]Lynch, N., 2003. Large scale cryocooler development for superconducting electric power application. 21st Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, p.173-176.

[22]Martin, J.L., Martin, C.M., 2002. Pulse tube cryocoolers for industrial applications. 19th Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, p.662-669.

[23]Potratz, S.A., 2007. Design and Test of a High Capacity Pulse Tube. PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

[24]Potratz, S.A., Nellis, G.F., Maddocks, J.R., et al., 2006. Development of a large-capacity, Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. 22nd Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Keystone, Colorado, USA, p.3-10.

[25]So, J.H., Swift, G.W., Backhaus, S., 2006. An internal streaming instability in regenerators. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(4):1898-1909.

[26]Spoor, P.S., 2012. Preliminary results on a large acoustic-Stirling (“pulse tube”) cooler designed for 800 W at 70 K. 17th International Cryocooler Conference, Los Angeles, USA, p.121-127.

[27]Spoor, P.S., 2013. Anomalous temperature and amplitude-dependent performance characteristic of a 1000W/80K coldfinger. Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, p.1405-1409.

[28]Sun, D.M., Dietrich, M., Thummes, G., 2009a. High power Stirling type pulse tube cooler working below 30 K. Cryogenics, 49(9):457-462.

[29]Sun, D.M., Dietrich, M., Thummes, G., et al., 2009b. Investigation on regenerator temperature inhomogeneity in Stirling-type pulse tube cooler. Chinese Science Bulletin, 54(6):986-991.

[30]Sun, J.C., Qiu, L.M., Fang, K., et al., 2011. Theoretical and experimental investigation on high frequency large power pulse tube cryocooler. Cryogenic Engineering Conference of China, Wuhan, China, p.109-114 (in Chinese).

[31]Sun, J.C., Qiu, L.M., Gan, Z.H., et al., 2012. Simulation and experimental investigation of single stage high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 33(8):1283-1286 (in Chinese).

[32]Tanchon, J., Ercolani, E., Trollier, T., 2006. Design of a very large pulse tube cryocooler for HTS cable application. 22nd Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Keystone, Colorado, USA, p.661-668.

[33]Tanchon, J., Trollier, T., Ravex, A., et al., 2007. Prototyping a large capacity high frequency pulse tube cryocooler. 14th International Cryocooler Conference, Annapolis, Mariland, USA, p.133-139.

[34]Yuan, J., Maguire, J., 2004. Development of a single stage pulse tube refrigerator with linear compressor. 13th International Cryocooler Conferene, New Orleans, USA, p.157-163.

[35]Zhang, X.B., Chen, J.Y., Yao, L., et al., 2014. Research and development of large-scale cryogenic air separation in China. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 15(5):309-322.

[36]Zia, J.H., 2007. A pulse tube cryocooler with 300 W refrigeration at 80 K with operating efficiency of 19% Carnot. 14th International Cryocooler Conference, Annapolis, Maryland, USA, p.141-147.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE