Full Text:   <2083>

Summary:  <306>

CLC number: U448.21

On-line Access: 2017-05-03

Received: 2016-04-09

Revision Accepted: 2016-08-31

Crosschecked: 2017-04-14

Cited: 0

Clicked: 1897

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Yi-feng Wu


Hao Wang


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2017 Vol.18 No.5 P.363-376


Explicit finite element analysis and experimental verification of a sliding lead rubber bearing

Author(s):  Yi-feng Wu, Hao Wang, Ai-qun Li, Dong-ming Feng, Ben Sha, Yu-ping Zhang

Affiliation(s):  School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   wyf.07010701@163.com, wanghao1980@seu.edu.cn

Key Words:  Explicit analysis, Sliding lead rubber bearing (SLRB), Time step size, Contact relations, Numerical simulation, Experimental verification

Yi-feng Wu, Hao Wang, Ai-qun Li, Dong-ming Feng, Ben Sha, Yu-ping Zhang. Explicit finite element analysis and experimental verification of a sliding lead rubber bearing[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2017, 18(5): 363-376.

@article{title="Explicit finite element analysis and experimental verification of a sliding lead rubber bearing",
author="Yi-feng Wu, Hao Wang, Ai-qun Li, Dong-ming Feng, Ben Sha, Yu-ping Zhang",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science A",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Explicit finite element analysis and experimental verification of a sliding lead rubber bearing
%A Yi-feng Wu
%A Hao Wang
%A Ai-qun Li
%A Dong-ming Feng
%A Ben Sha
%A Yu-ping Zhang
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A
%V 18
%N 5
%P 363-376
%@ 1673-565X
%D 2017
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.A1600302

T1 - Explicit finite element analysis and experimental verification of a sliding lead rubber bearing
A1 - Yi-feng Wu
A1 - Hao Wang
A1 - Ai-qun Li
A1 - Dong-ming Feng
A1 - Ben Sha
A1 - Yu-ping Zhang
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science A
VL - 18
IS - 5
SP - 363
EP - 376
%@ 1673-565X
Y1 - 2017
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.A1600302

Based on the explicit finite element (FE) software ANSYS/LS-DYNA, the FE model for a sliding lead rubber bearing (SLRB) is developed. The design parameters of the laminated steel, including thickness, density, and Young’s modulus, are modified to greatly enlarge the time step size of the model. Three types of contact relations in ANSYS/LS-DYNA are employed to analyze all the contact relations existing in the bearing. Then numerical simulations of the compression tests and a series of correlation tests on compression-shear properties for the bearing are conducted, and the numerical results are further verified by experimental and theoretical ones. Results show that the developed FE model is capable of reproducing the vertical stiffness and the particular hysteresis behavior of the bearing. The shear stresses of the intermediate rubber layer obtained from the numerical simulation agree well with the theoretical results. Moreover, it is observed from the numerical simulation that the lead cylinder undergoes plastic deformation even if no additional lateral load is applied, and an extremely large plastic deformation when a shear displacement of 115 mm is applied. Furthermore, compared with the implicit analysis, the computational cost of the explicit analysis is much more acceptable. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed modeling method for the SLRB is accurate and practical.

This paper addresses the issue of efficient finite element (FE) modelling of lead-rubber bearings used for the seismic isolation of building structures. A particular commercial software is used for the task and focus is given on increasing the time step required in conducting non-linear response history analysis without suffering from numerical instabilities due to large deformations expected to develop in the bearings under severe ground excitation intensity. It is proposed by the authors to use artificially small values for the mechanical properties of the steel sheets increasing their thickness such that they become compatible with the properties of the rubber sheets, while increasing the thickness of the steel sheets. Although from a numerical/computational viewpoint the fact that the two materials have now similar properties and therefore a larger time-step can be used in the analysis leading to computational efficiency, this heuristic consideration does not represent reality as the two different materials have very different properties. To this end, the authors undertake verified by experimental data obtained from testing actual bearings in the shaking table to demonstrate that the induced error due to adopting artificially low mechanical properties for the steel sheets do not induce significant errors in predicting the seismic response of the considered specimens tested in the lab. From a technical viewpoint, the paper presents a "smart" way to reduce the time-step in the analysis of lead-rubber bearing which, although raises questions on its rationality, it does seem to yield encouraging results when compared with experimental data. This can be classified as a practical paper which may be of use to practicing engineers undertaking design and verification of base isolated buildings for earthquake resistance. There is always, of course, an issue on whether the proposed heuristic technique is applicable and accurate to different types of lead-rubber bearings not considered in the experimental campaign used in the paper. However, such bearings are always tested in the lab before deployment and, therefore, in each case a similar preliminary analysis can be done by practicing engineers along the lines of the paper to test the validity of the proposed scheme, which may then be used for computationally efficient design verification purposes with confidence.


创新点:1. 探究基于显式积分算法的隔震支座数值模拟方法;2. 采取多种方法有效地控制了数值模拟计算规模,同时实现了较高的数值模拟精度;3. 采用程序中提供的3种接触方式较好地模拟了支座中存在的复杂接触关系。
方法:本文主要采用4种方法减小数值模拟计算规模:1. 激活程序内置的质量缩放功能;2. 合理增大支座中对支座竖向刚度与水平剪切性能影响较小的非关键部件--叠层钢板的厚度;3. 合理减小叠层钢板的弹性模量;4. 考虑到支座中所有材料均未考虑材料的率变效应,即加载速率对支座的力学性能没有影响,本文数值模拟中所用加载频率为实际加载频率的10倍。此外,本文采用了一般接触、绑定接触与单边接触模拟支座中不同的接触关系。
结论:1. 显式积分的计算时间步长由2.4×10-7 s增大到3.5×10-6 s;2. 与试验结果对比验证了本文提出的基于显式积分算法对该新型可滑移式铅芯橡胶支座进行数值模拟的方法的准确实用性;3. 该支座在纯压作用下,部分铅芯发生塑性变形,而在最大剪切位移时,铅芯发生了很大的塑性流动变形;4. 与采用隐式算法对该支座进行数值模拟研究所用时间相比,显式算法所用时间少很多。


Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Abe, M., Yoshida, J., Fujino, Y., 2004a. Multiaxial behaviors of laminated rubber bearings and their modeling. I: Experimental study. Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(8):1119-1132.

[2]Abe, M., Yoshida, J., Fujino, Y., 2004b. Multiaxial behaviors of laminated rubber bearings and their modeling. II: Modeling. Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(8):1133-1144.

[3]Ali, H.E.M., Abdel-Ghaffar, A.M., 1995. Modeling of rubber and lead passive-control bearings for seismic analysis. Journal of Structural Engineering, 121(7):1134-1144.

[4]Amin, A.F.M.S., Alam, M.S., Okui, Y., 2002. An improved hyperelasticity relation in modeling viscoelasticity response of natural and high damping rubbers in compression: experiments, parameter identification and numerical verification. Mechanics of Materials, 34(2):75-95.

[5]Amin, A.F.M.S., Wiraguna, S.I., Bhuiyan, A.R., et al., 2006a. Hyperelasticity model for finite element analysis of natural and high damping rubbers in compression and shear. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 132(1):54-64.

[6]Amin, A.F.M.S., Lion, A., Sekita, S., et al., 2006b. Nonlinear dependence of viscosity in modeling the rate-dependent response of natural and high damping rubbers in compression and shear: experimental identification and numerical verification. International Journal of Plasticity, 22(9):1610-1657.

[7]Basu, B., Bursi, O.S., Casciati, F., et al., 2014. A European association for the control of structures joint perspective. Recent studies in civil structural control across Europe. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 21(12):1414-1436.

[8]Constantinou, M.C., Kartoum, A., Kelly, J.M., 1992. Analysis of compression of hollow circular elastomeric bearings. Engineering Structures, 142(2):103-111.

[9]de Mari, G., Domaneschi, M., Ismail, M., et al., 2015. Reduced-order coupled bidirectional modeling of the Roll-N-Cage isolator with application to the updated bridge benchmark. Acta Mechanica, 226(10):3533-3553.

[10]Domaneschi, M., 2012. Simulation of controlled hysteresis by the semi-active Bouc-Wen model. Computers and Structures, 106-107:245-257.

[11]Doudoumis, I.N., Gravalas, F., Doudoumis, N.I., 2005. Analytical modeling of elastomeric lead-rubber bearings with the use of finite element micromodels. 5th GRACM International Congress on Computational Mechanics.

[12]Eröz, M., DesRoches, R., 2013. A comparative assessment of sliding and elastomeric seismic isolation in a typical multi-span bridge. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 17(5):637-657.

[13]Gur, S., Mishra, S.K., Chakraborty, S., 2014. Performance assessment of buildings isolated by shape-memory-alloy rubber bearing: comparison with elastomeric bearing under near-fault earthquakes. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 21(4):449-465.

[14]Hallquist, J.O., 2014. LS-DYNA Theory Manual. Livermore Software Technology Corporation, California, USA.

[15]Han, X., Warn, G.P., 2014. Mechanistic model for simulating critical behavior in elastomeric bearings. Journal of Structural Engineering, 141(5):04014140.

[16]Hwang, J.S., Chiou, J.M., Sheng, L.H., et al., 1996. A refined model for base-isolated bridge with bi-linear hysteretic bearings. Earthquake Spectra, 12(2):245-273.

[17]Imbimbo, M., de Luca, A., 1998. F.E. stress analysis of rubber bearings under axial loads. Computers and Structures, 68(1-3):31-39.

[18]Imbsen, R.A., 2007. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, USA.

[19]Kalpakidis, I.V., Constantinou, M.C., Whittaker, A.S., 2010. Modeling strength degradation in lead-rubber bearings under earthquake shaking. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 39(13):1533-1549.

[20]Kelly, J.M., Marsico, M.R., 2013. Tension buckling in rubber bearings affected by cavitation. Engineering Structures, 56:656-663.

[21]Kelly, J.M., Takhirov, S.M., 2007. Tension buckling in multilayer elastomeric isolation bearings. Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 2(8):1591-1605.

[22]Medel-Vera, C., Ji, T.J., 2015. Seismic protection technology for nuclear power plants: a systematic review. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(5):607-632.

[23]Miyamura, T., Yamashita, T., Akiba, H., et al., 2015. Dynamic FE simulation of four-story steel frame modeled by solid elements and its validation using results of full-scale shake-table test. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 44(9):1449-1469.

[24]Nguyen, H.H., Tassoulas, J.L., 2010. Directional effects of shear combined with compression on bridge elastomeric bearings. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 15(1):73-80.

[25]Ohsaki, M., Miyamura, T., Kohiyama, M., et al., 2009. High-precision finite element analysis of elastoplastic dynamic responses of super-high-rise steel frames. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 38(5):635-654.

[26]Ohsaki, M., Miyamura, T., Kohiyama, M., et al., 2015. Finite-element analysis of laminated rubber bearing of building frame under seismic excitation. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 44(11):1881-1898.

[27]Pan, P., Ye, L.P., Shi, W., et al., 2012. Engineering practice of seismic isolation and energy dissipation structures in China. Science China Technological Sciences, 55(11):3036-3046.

[28]Perotti, F., Domaneschi, M., de Grandis, S., 2013. The numerical computation of seismic fragility of base-isolated nuclear power plants buildings. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 262:189-200.

[29]Roussis, P.C., Constantinou, M.C., Erdik, M., et al., 2003. Assessment of performance of seismic isolation system of Bolu Viaduct. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 8(4):182-190.

[30]Ryan, K.L., Kelly, J.M., Chopra, A.K., 2004. Experimental observation of axial load effects in isolation bearings. 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper No. 1707.

[31]SAC (Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China), 2006. Rubber Bearings—Part II: Elastomeric Seismic-Protection Isolators for Bridges, GB 20688.2-2006. Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of China (in Chinese).

[32]Sugita, H., Mahin, S.A., Doboku, K., 1994. Manual for Menshin Design of Highway Bridges: Ministry of Construction, Japan. Report No. UCB/EERC-94/10, University of California, Berkeley, USA.

[33]Takayama, M., Tada, H., Tanaka, R., 1992. Finite-element analysis of laminated rubber bearing used in base-isolation system. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 65(1):46-62.

[34]Tyler, R.G., Robinson, W.H., 1984. High-strain tests on lead-rubber bearings for earthquake loadings. Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society Earthquake Engineering, 17(2):90-105.

[35]Wang, R.Z., Chen, S.K., Liu, K.Y., et al., 2014. Analytical simulations of the steel-laminated elastomeric bridge bearing. Journal of Mechanics, 30(4):373-382.

[36]Warn, G.P., Ryan, K.L., 2012. A review of seismic isolation buildings: historical development and research needs. Buildings, 2(3):300-325.

[37]Warn, G.P., Whittaker, A.S., Constantinou, M.C., 2007. Vertical stiffness of elastomeric and lead-rubber seismic isolation bearings. Journal of Structural Engineering, 133(9):1227-1236.

[38]Weisman, J., Warn, G.P., 2012. Stability of elastomeric and lead-rubber seismic isolation bearings. Journal of Structural Engineering, 138(2):215-223.

[39]Xing, C.X., Wang, H., Li, A.Q., et al., 2012. Design and experimental verification of a new multi-functional bridge seismic isolation bearing. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A (Applied Physics & Engineering), 13(12):904-914.

[40]Yoshida, J., Abe, M., Fujino, Y., et al., 2004. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis of high damping rubber bearings. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 130(5):607-620.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE