Full Text:   <2791>

Summary:  <1848>

CLC number: R15

On-line Access: 2016-10-02

Received: 2016-03-23

Revision Accepted: 2016-06-23

Crosschecked: 2016-09-11

Cited: 3

Clicked: 3474

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714


Guo-qing He


-   Go to

Article info.
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2016 Vol.17 No.10 P.787-797


A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough

Author(s):  Guo-hua Zhang, Tao Wu, Faizan A. Sadiq, Huan-yi Yang, Tong-jie Liu, Hui Ruan, Guo-qing He

Affiliation(s):  College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   gqhe@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Steamed bread, Sourdough, Simultaneous distillation–, extraction (SDE), Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), Purge and trap (P&, T)

Guo-hua Zhang, Tao Wu, Faizan A. Sadiq, Huan-yi Yang, Tong-jie Liu, Hui Ruan, Guo-qing He. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2016, 17(10): 787-797.

@article{title="A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough",
author="Guo-hua Zhang, Tao Wu, Faizan A. Sadiq, Huan-yi Yang, Tong-jie Liu, Hui Ruan, Guo-qing He",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough
%A Guo-hua Zhang
%A Tao Wu
%A Faizan A. Sadiq
%A Huan-yi Yang
%A Tong-jie Liu
%A Hui Ruan
%A Guo-qing He
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 17
%N 10
%P 787-797
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2016
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B1600130

T1 - A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough
A1 - Guo-hua Zhang
A1 - Tao Wu
A1 - Faizan A. Sadiq
A1 - Huan-yi Yang
A1 - Tong-jie Liu
A1 - Hui Ruan
A1 - Guo-qing He
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 17
IS - 10
SP - 787
EP - 797
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2016
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B1600130

Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–;extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&;t). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.




Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1]Arendt, E.K., Ryan, L.A.M., Bello, F.D., 2007. Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread. Food Microbiol., 24(2):165-174.

[2]Caldeira, M., Rodrigues, F., Perestrelo, R., et al., 2007. Comparison of two extraction methods for evaluation of volatile constituents patterns in commercial whiskeys. Elucidation of the main odour-active compounds. Talanta, 74(1):78-90.

[3]Chaintreau, A., 2001. Simultaneous distillation–extraction: from birth to maturity—review. Flavour Frag. J., 16(2):136-148.

[4]Damiani, P., Gobbetti, M., Cossignani, L., et al., 1996. The sourdough microflora. Characterization of hetero- and homofermentative lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and their interactions on the basis of the volatile compounds produced. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 29(1-2):63-70.

[5]Etievant, P.X., 1996. Artifacts and contaminants in the analysis of food flavor. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 36(7):733-745.

[6]Frankel, E.N., 1982. Volatile lipid oxidation products. Prog. Lipids Res., 22:4-33.

[7]Frasse, P., Lambert, S., Richard-Molard, D., et al., 1993. The influence of fermentation on volatile compounds in French bread dough. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 26(2):126-132.

[8]Galle, S., Arendt, E.K., 2014. Exopolysaccharides from sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 54(7):891-901.

[9]Gobbetti, M., Simonetti, M.S., Corsetti, A., et al., 1995. Volatile compound and organic acid productions by mixed wheat sour dough starters: influence of fermentation parameters and dynamics during baking. Food Microbiol., 12:497-507.

[10]Hansen, A., Schieberle, P., 2005. Generation of aroma compounds during sourdough fermentation: applied and fundamental aspects. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 16(1-3):85-94.

[11]Hansen, B., Hansen, A., 1994. Volatile compounds in wheat sourdoughs produced by lactic acid bacteria and sourdough yeasts. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung, 198(3):202-209.

[12]He, Z.H., Liu, A.H., Peña, R.J., et al., 2003. Suitability of Chinese wheat cultivars for production of northern style Chinese steamed bread. Euphytica, 131(2):155-163.

[13]Kam, W.Y., Wan, A.W.M., Sahilah, A.M., et al., 2011. Volatile compounds and lactic acid bacteria in spontaneous fermented sourdough. Sains Malays., 40(2):135-138.

[14]Kang, K.M., Baek, H.H., 2014. Aroma quality assessment of Korean fermented red pepper paste (gochujang) by aroma extract dilution analysis and headspace solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–olfactometry. Food Chem., 145(4):488-495.

[15]Katina, K., Poutanen, K., 2013. Nutritional Aspects of Cereal Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast. In: Gobbetti, M., Gänzle, M. (Eds.), Handbook on Sourdough Biotechnology. Springer US, p.229-244.

[16]Kim, Y., Huang, W., Zhu, H., et al., 2009. Spontaneous sourdough processing of Chinese northern-style steamed breads and their volatile compounds. Food Chem., 114(2):685-692.

[17]Liao, Y., Miller, R.A., Hoseney, R.C., et al., 1998. Role of hydrogen peroxide produced by baker’s yeast on dough rheology 1. Cereal Chem., 75(5):612-616.

[18]Lorenz, K., Kulp, K., 2003. Handbook of Dough Fermentations. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p.110-127.

[19]Luangsakul, N., Keeratipibul, S., Jindamorakot, S., et al., 2009. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from the starter doughs for Chinese steamed buns in Thailand. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 42(8):1404-1412.

[20]Mahadevan, K., Farmer, L., 2006. Key odor impact compounds in three yeast extract pastes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(19):7242-7250.

[21]Mamede, M.E.O., Pastore, G.M., 2006. Study of methods for the extraction of volatile compounds from fermented grape must. Food Chem., 96(4):586-590.

[22]Mann, D., Morrison, W.R., 1975. Effects of ingredients on the oxidation of linoleic acid by lipoxygenase in bread doughs. J. Sci. Food Agric., 26(4):493.

[23]Martínez-Anaya, M.A., Llin, M.L., Macías, M.P., et al., 1994. Regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung, 199(3):186-190.

[24]Plessas, S., Bekatorou, A., Gallanagh, J., et al., 2008. Evolution of aroma volatiles during storage of sourdough breads made by mixed cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus or Lactobacillus helveticus. Food Chem., 107(2):883-889.

[25]Reineccius, G., 2005. Flavor Chemistry and Technology, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, p.43-66.

[26]Rosenquist, H., Hansen, H., 1998. The antimicrobial effects of organic acids, sourdough and nisin against Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis isolated from wheat bread. J. Appl. Microbiol., 85(3):621-631.

[27]Salim-ur-Rehman, Paterson, A., Piggott, J.R., 2006. Flavour in sourdough breads: a review. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 17(10):557-566.

[28]Schieberle, P., 1996. Intense aroma compounds-useful tools to monitor the influence of processing and storage on bread aroma. Adv. Food Sci. (CMTL), 18:237-244.

[29]Siegmund, B., Leitner, E., Mayer, I., et al., 1997. 5,6-Dihydro 2,4,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3,5-dithiazine—an aroma-active compound formed in course of the likens–nickerson extraction. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung, 205(1):73-75.

[30]Spicher, G., Rabe, E., Sommer, R., et al., 1982. Communication: on the behavior of heterofermentative sourdough bacteria and yeasts in mixed culture. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und-Forschung, 174(3):222-227.

[31]Starr, G., Hansen, Å.S., Petersen, M.A., et al., 2015. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety. LWT-Food Sci. Technol., 63(1):590-598.

[32]Stolz, P., Böcker, G., Vogel, R.F., et al., 1993. Utilization of maltose and glucose by lactobacilli isolated from sourdough. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 109(2-3):237-242.

[33]Tachibana, C., 2014. What’s next in ’omics: the metabolome. Science, 345(6203):1519-1521.

[34]Vas, G., Vékey, K., 2004. Solid-phase microextraction: a powerful sample preparation tool prior to mass spectrometric analysis. J. Mass Spectrom., 39(3):233-254.

[35]van den Dool, H., Kratz, P.D., 1963. A generalization of the retention index system including line temperature programmed gas liquid partition chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A, 11(C):463-471.

[36]Vermeulen, N., Czerny, M., Gänzle, M.G., et al., 2007. Reduction of (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal during sourdough fermentation. J. Cereal Sci., 45(1):78-87.

[37]Wang, R., Yang, C., Song, H.L., 2012. Key meat flavour compounds formation mechanism in a glutathione–xylose Maillard reaction. Food Chem., 131(1):280-285.

[38]Wu, C., Liu, R., Huang, W., et al., 2012. Effect of sourdough fermentation on the quality of Chinese northern-style steamed breads. J. Cereal Sci., 56(2):127-133.

[39]Xia, Y., Zhang, F., Wang, W., et al., 2014. Analysis of volatile compounds from siraitia grosvenorii by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. Sci., 53(1):1-7.

[40]Yao, F., Yi, B., Shen, C., et al., 2015. Chemical analysis of the Chinese liquor Luzhoulaojiao by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Sci. Rep., 5:9553.

[41]Zhang, G., He, G., 2013. Predominant bacteria diversity in Chinese traditional sourdough. J. Food Sci., 78(8):M1218-M1223.

[42]Zhang, G., Sadiq, F.A., Zhu, L., et al., 2015. Investigation of microbial communities of Chinese sourdoughs using culture-dependent and DGGE approaches. J. Food Sci., 80(11):M2535-M2542.

[43]Zhang, J., Liu, W., Sun, Z., et al., 2011. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional sourdoughs collected from western region in Inner Mongolia of China. Food Control, 22(5):767-774.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE