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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2020 Vol.21 No.6 P.460-473

10.1631/jzus.B1900633


Gene editing: an instrument for practical application of gene biology to plant breeding


Author(s):  Yuan-Yuan Tan, Hao Du, Xia Wu, Yan-Hua Liu, Meng Jiang, Shi-Yong Song, Liang Wu, Qing-Yao Shu

Affiliation(s):  National Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Crop Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   qyshu@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Gene editing, Expression regulation, Novel allele, Trait development, Plant breeding


Yuan-Yuan Tan, Hao Du, Xia Wu, Yan-Hua Liu, Meng Jiang, Shi-Yong Song, Liang Wu, Qing-Yao Shu. Gene editing: an instrument for practical application of gene biology to plant breeding[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2020, 21(6): 460-473.

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publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
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Abstract: 
plant breeding is well recognized as one of the most important means to meet food security challenges caused by the ever-increasing world population. During the past three decades, plant breeding has been empowered by both new knowledge on trait development and regulation (e.g., functional genomics) and new technologies (e.g., biotechnologies and phenomics). gene editing, particularly by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) and its variants, has become a powerful technology in plant research and may become a game-changer in plant breeding. Traits are conferred by coding and non-coding genes. From this perspective, we propose different editing strategies for these two types of genes. The activity of an encoded enzyme and its quantity are regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional, as well as translational and post-translational, levels. Different strategies are proposed to intervene to generate gene functional variations and consequently phenotype changes. For non-coding genes, trait modification could be achieved by regulating transcription of their own or target genes via gene editing. Also included is a scheme of protoplast editing to make gene editing more applicable in plant breeding. In summary, this review provides breeders with a host of options to translate gene biology into practical breeding strategies, i.e., to use gene editing as a mechanism to commercialize gene biology in plant breeding.

基因编辑:将基因生物学用于植物育种的工具

概要:人口不断增长给世界粮食安全带来了严峻的挑战,植物育种是应对这一挑战的最重要手段之一.过去三十年来,性状形成和调控的新知识(如功能基因组学)和新技术(如生物信息学和表型组学)极大地支持了植物育种的发展.基因编辑,特别是基于CRISPR/Cas技术和其衍生技术,已成为强有力的植物研究技术,可能直接改变植物育种的方法和策略.植物表型性状受编码基因和非编码基因的控制,在本文中,我们提出了编辑这两类基因的不同策略.对于编码基因,其编码蛋白的活性和数量可在转录和转录后水平以及翻译和翻译后水平加以调节,我们由此提出了创造基因功能性变异从而改变性状表型的基因编辑策略.对于非编码基因,则可以采用基因编辑技术对其转录水平或对靶基因的目标序列加以改造,达到产生新的性状的目的.此外,我们还提出了一种基于原生质体的基因编辑方案,使基因编辑技术更适合于植物育种.总之,本文提出了一系列可供植物育种者选择的将基因生物学知识转化为实用育种策略的方案,即基因编辑技术成为将基因生物学知识用于植物育种的技术.
关键词:基因编辑;表达调控;新等位基因;性状形成;植物育种

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

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