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CLC number: R321.5

On-line Access: 2020-10-12

Received: 2020-05-31

Revision Accepted: 2020-08-06

Crosschecked: 2020-09-08

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Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

 ORCID:

Lan Zhang

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4897-6569

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Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2020 Vol.21 No.10 P.757-766

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000285


Apical ectodermal ridge regulates three principal axes of the developing limb


Author(s):  Guo-hao Lin, Lan Zhang

Affiliation(s):  Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK; more

Corresponding email(s):   zhanglan@sdpei.edu.cn

Key Words:  Apical ectodermal ridge (AER), Limb development, Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)


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Guo-hao Lin, Lan Zhang. Apical ectodermal ridge regulates three principal axes of the developing limb[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2020, 21(10): 757-766.

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Abstract: 
Understanding limb development not only gives insights into the outgrowth and differentiation of the limb, but also has clinical relevance. limb development begins with two paired limb buds (forelimb and hindlimb buds), which are initially undifferentiated mesenchymal cells tipped with a thickening of the ectoderm, termed the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). As a transitional embryonic structure, the AER undergoes four stages and contributes to multiple axes of limb development through the coordination of signalling centres, feedback loops, and other cell activities by secretory signalling and the activation of gene expression. Within the scope of proximodistal patterning, it is understood that while fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) function sequentially over time as primary components of the AER signalling process, there is still no consensus on models that would explain proximodistal patterning itself. In anteroposterior patterning, the AER has a dual-direction regulation by which it promotes the sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene expression in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) for proliferation, and inhibits Shh expression in the anterior mesenchyme. In dorsoventral patterning, the AER activates Engrailed-1 (En1) expression, and thus represses Wnt family member 7a (Wnt7a) expression in the ventral ectoderm by the expression of Fgfs, Sp6/8, and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) genes. The AER also plays a vital role in shaping the individual digits, since levels of Fgf4/8 and Bmps expressed in the AER affect digit patterning by controlling apoptosis. In summary, the knowledge of crosstalk within AER among the three main axes is essential to understand limb growth and pattern formation, as the development of its areas proceeds simultaneously.

顶端外胚层嵴对肢体发育的立体调控

概要:理解胚胎肢体发育有助于更加全面地了解肢体的发生和分化,同时对于相关基因疗法和肢体再生具有临床指导意义.本文综述了顶端外胚层嵴(AER)参与胚胎肢体发育调控的研究进展及机理,重点总结了AER对肢体发育三个轴向的立体调控,包括基因表达调控、信号通路及相关调控中心,并进一步讨论了各信号中心之间的交互作用及现有研究待解决问题,从而加深对肢体发育异常、肢端异常等疾病的理解.
关键词:顶端外胚层嵴(AER);肢体发育;成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF);极化活性区(APZ)

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

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