Full Text:   <1855>

CLC number: R657.5+1; R57.5

On-line Access: 

Received: 2006-06-13

Revision Accepted: 2006-12-22

Crosschecked: 0000-00-00

Cited: 7

Clicked: 4065

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2007 Vol.8 No.4 P.228~236

http://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0228


Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury


Author(s):  ZHANG Xi-ping, WANG Lei, ZHANG Jie

Affiliation(s):  Department of General Surgery, Hangzhou First People’ more

Corresponding email(s):   zxp99688@vip.163.com

Key Words:  Severe acute pancreatitis, Hepatic injury, Inflammatory mediators, Cytokines, Endotoxin, Nuclear factor-&kappa, B


ZHANG Xi-ping, WANG Lei, ZHANG Jie. Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2007, 8(4): 228~236.

@article{title="Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury",
author="ZHANG Xi-ping, WANG Lei, ZHANG Jie",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
volume="8",
number="4",
pages="228~236",
year="2007",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",
doi="10.1631/jzus.2007.B0228"
}

%0 Journal Article
%T Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury
%A ZHANG Xi-ping
%A WANG Lei
%A ZHANG Jie
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 8
%N 4
%P 228~236
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2007
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0228

TY - JOUR
T1 - Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury
A1 - ZHANG Xi-ping
A1 - WANG Lei
A1 - ZHANG Jie
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 8
IS - 4
SP - 228
EP - 236
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2007
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0228


Abstract: 
Study on the action mechanism of b%5D=abstract&ck%5b%5D=keyword'>b>inflammatory mediators generated by the b%5D=abstract&ck%5b%5D=keyword'>b>severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The b%5D=abstract&ck%5b%5D=keyword'>b>hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes of vasoactive substances, participation of b%5D=abstract&ck%5b%5D=keyword'>b>inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), b%5D=abstract&ck%5b%5D=keyword'>b>endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article

Reference

[1] Abu-Zidan, F.M., Windsor, J.A., 2002. Lexipafant and acute pancreatitis: a critical appraisal of the clinical trials. Eur. J. Surg., 168(4):215-219.

[2] Ammori, B.J., 2003. Role of the gut in the course of severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreas, 26(2):122-129.

[3] Antonelli, A., Bianchi, M., Crinelli, R., Gentilini, L., Magnani, M., 2001. Modulation of ICAM-1 expression in ECV304 cells by macrophage-releasedcytokines. Blood Cell Mol. Dis., 27(6):978-991.

[4] Bhatia, M., Brady, M., Shokuhi, S., Christmas, S., Neoptolemos, J.P., Slavin, J., 2000. Inflammatory mediators in acute pancreatitis. J. Pathol., 190(2):117-125.

[5] Brady, M., Bhatia, M., Christmas, S., Boyd, M.T., Neoptolemos, J.P., Slavin, J., 2002. Expression of the chemokines MCP-1/JE and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in early acute pancreatitis. Pancreas, 25(3):260-269.

[6] Brivet, F.G., Emilie, D., Galanaud, P., 1999. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines during acute severe pancreatitis: an early and sustained response, although unpredictable of death. Parisian Study Group on Acute Pancreatitis. Crit. Care Med., 27(4):749-755.

[7] Cassatella, M.A., 1995. The production of cytokines by polymor phonuclear neutrophils. Immunol. Today, 16(1):21-26.

[8] Chen, H., Li, F., Cheng, Y.F., Sun, J.B., 2001. Role of neutrophil in evolution of rat severe acute pancreatitis. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 9(7):776-779 (in Chinese).

[9] Clemons, A.P., Holstein, D.M., Galli, A., Saunders, C., 2002. Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in the rats is significantly ameliorated by treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and PD98059. Pancreas, 25(3):251-259.

[10] de Dios, I., Perez, M., Mano, A., Sevillano, S., Orfao, A., Ramudo, L., Manso, M.A., 2002. Contribution of circulating leukocytes to cytokine production in pancreatic duct obstruction-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Cytokinem, 20(6):295-303.

[11] Demols, A., Deviere, J., 2003. New frontiers in the pharmacological prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: the cytokines. JOP, 4(1):49-57.

[12] Descamps, F.J., van den Steen, P.E., Martens, E., Ballaux, F., Geboes, K., Opdenakker, G., 2003. Gelatinase B is diabetogenic in acute and chronic pancreatitis by cleaving insulin. FASEB J., 17(8):887-889.

[13] Dlugosz, J.W., Triebling, A.T., Brzozowski, J., 1993. The role of lysosomal alterations in the damage to the pancreas and liver in acute experimental pancreatitis in dogs. Mater. Med. Pol., 25(3-4):119-125.

[14] Eguchi, H., McCuskey, P.A., McCuskey, R.S., 1991. Kupffer cell activity and hepatic microvascular events after acute ethanol ingestion in mice. Hepatology, 13(4):751-757.

[15] Foitzik, T., Eibl, G., Hotz, H.G., Faulhaber, J., Kirchengast, M., Buhr, H.J., 2000. Endothelin receptor blockade in severe acute pancreatitis leads to systemic enhancement of microcirculation, stabilization of capillary permeability, and improved survival rates. Surgery, 128(3):399-407.

[16] Fujita, S., Arii, S., Monden, K., Adachi, Y., Funaki, N., Higashitsuji, H., Furutani, M., Mise, M., Ishiguro, S., Kitao, T., 1995. Particiation of hepatic macrophages and plasma factors in endotoxin-induced liver injury. J. Surg. Res., 59(2):263-270.

[17] Ge, H.Y., Wang, A.C., 1994. Prevention and treatment of severe acute pancreatitis complications. Chin. J. Gen. Surg., 9(5):295 (in Chinese).

[18] Ginis, I., Jaiswal, R., Klimanis, D., Liu, J., Greenspon, J., Hallenbeck, J.M., 2002. TNF-alpha-induced tolerance to ischemic injury involves differential control of NF-kappaB transactivation: the role of NF-kappaB association with p300 adaptor. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab., 22(2):142-152.

[19] Gong, S.W., Ai, Z.L., Zhou, Y.K., 1995. Protedtive effects of prostacyclin on acute necrotizing pancreatitis and its venal damage in rats. Zhonghua Waike Zazhi, 33(4):197-200 (in Chinese).

[20] Gu, J.C., Qin, Z.Y., Wang, Y., 1999. TXA2, PGI2 changes in empirical rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis complicated with lung injury. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 7(3):275 (in Chinese).

[21] Han, D.W., 1996. Intestinal endotoxemia and hepatic failure. J. Clin. Hepatol., 12(1):50-54 (in Chinese).

[22] Hartwig, W., Werner, J., Uhl, W., Buchler, M.W., 2002a. Management of infection in acute pancreatitis. J. Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surg., 9(4):423-428.

[23] Hartwig, W., Werner, J., Muller, C.A., Uhl, W., Buchler, M.W., 2002b. Surgical management of severe pancreatitis including sterile necrosis. J. Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surg., 9(4):429-435.

[24] Hartwig, W., Carter, E.A., Jimenez, R.E., Jones, R., Fischman, A.J., Fernandez-del Castillo, C., Warshaw, A.L., 2002c. Neutrophil metabolic activity but not neutrophil sequestration reflects the development of pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Crit. Care Med., 30(9):2075-2082.

[25] He, L., Chen, S.F., Cao, X.H., Zhang, L.D., Pan, L.L., Zhou, Z., 2003. Changes of serum level of IL-15, IL-18 and sTNF-1R in patients with acute pancreatitis. World Chin. J. Digestol., 11(1):57-60 (in Chinese).

[26] Hirano, T., Hirano, K., 1999. Glucagon ameliorates pancreatic subcellular redistribution of lysosomal enzyme in rats with acute pancreatitis of closed duodenal loop. Dig. Surg., 16(1):16-21.

[27] Hirota, M., Nozawa, F., Okabe, A., Shibata, M., Beppu, T., Shimada, S., Egami, H., Yamaguchi, Y., Ikei, S., Okajima, T., et al., 2000. Relationship between plasma cytokine concentration and multiple organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreas, 21(2):141-146.

[28] Izumi, T., Saito, Y., Kishimoto, I., Harada, M., Kuwahara, K., Hamanaka, I., Takahashi, N., Kawakami, R., Li, Y., Takemura, G., et al., 2001. Blockade of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylyl cyclase-A inhibits NF-kappaB activation and alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. J. Clin. Invest., 108(2):203-213.

[29] Ji, Z.H., Wang, B.M., Li, S.H., Tang, Y., Ding, T.K., Ma, Y.G., 1997. The role of platelet activating factor in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. Zhonghua Waike Zazhi, 35(2):108-110 (in Chinese).

[30] Kazantsev, G.B., Hecht, D.W., Rao, R., Fedorak, I.J., Gattuso, P., Thompson, K., Djuricin, D., Prinz, R.A., 1994. Plasmid labeling confirms bacterial translocation in pancreatitis. Am. J. Surg., 167(1):201-207.

[31] Keck, T., Balcom, J.H. 4th, Fernandez-del Castillo, C., Antoniu, B.A., Warshaw, A.L., 2002. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 promotes neutrophil migration and alveolar capillary leakage in pancreatitis-associated lung injury in the rat. Gastroenterology, 122(1):188-201.

[32] Kingsnorth, A.N., 1996. Platelet-activating factor. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl., 219:28-31.

[33] Lakshminarayanan, V., Lewallen, M., Frangogiannis, N.G., Evans, A.J., Wedin, K.E., Michael, L.H., Entman, M.L., 2001. Reactive oxygen intermediates induce monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in vascular endothelium after brief ischemia. Am. J. Pathol., 159(4):1301-1311.

[34] Lei, R.Q., Zhang, S.D., 2000. Significance of systemic inflammatory reaction in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Chin. J. Hepatobiliary Surg., 6(1):76-77 (in Chinese).

[35] Li, Y.Y., Gao, Z.F., 2001. Acute pancreatitis and NF-κB. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 9(4):420-421 (in Chinese).

[36] Li, Y., Qian, J.Q., Qing, R.Y., Shen, M., 2000. Changes of immune function in patients with acute pancreatitis. World Chin. J. Digestol., 8(8):923-925 (in Chinese).

[37] Lipsett, P.A., 2001. Serum cytokines, proteins, and receptors in acute pancreatitis: mediators, marker, or more of the same? Crit. Care Med., 29(8):1642-1644.

[38] Lundberg, A.H., Granger, D.N., Russell, J., Sabek, O., Henry, J., Gaber, L., Kotb, M., Gaber, A.O., 2000. Quantitative measurement of P- and E-selectin adhesion molecules in acute pancreatitis: correlation with distant organ injury. Ann. Surg., 231(2):213-222.

[39] Luo, J., Ye, D.C., 1995. Changes in hepatic and renal ultrastructures of acute pancreatitis rat and their relations with oxygen free radical. Chin. J. Exp. Surg., 12(3):133 (in Chinese).

[40] Luster, M.I., Germolec, D.R., Yoshida, T., Kayama, F., Thompson, M., 1994. Endotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression and excretion in the liver. Hepatology, 19(2):480-488.

[41] Maher, J.J., Scott, M.K., Saito, J.M., Burton, M.C., 1997. Adenovirus-mediated expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoa-ttractant in rat liver induces a neutrophilic hepatitis. Hepatology, 25(3):624-630.

[42] Makhija, R., Kingsnorth, A.N., 2002. Cytokine storm in acute pancreatitis. J. Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surg., 9(4):401-410.

[43] Mao, E.Q., Zhang, S.D., Han, T.Q., 1997. Pancreatic ishemia: a continuous injury factor in acute necrotic pancreatitis. Zhonghua Waike Zazhi, 35(2):150-152 (in Chinese).

[44] Mayer, J., Rau, B., Gansauge, F., Beger, H.G., 2000. Inflammatory mediators in human acute pancreatitis: clinical and pathophysiological implications. Gut, 47(4):546-552.

[45] Mikami, Y., Takeda, K., Shibuya, K., Qiu-Feng, H., Egawa, S., Sunamura, M., Matsuno, S., 2002. Peritoneal inflammatory cells in acute pancreatitis: relationship of infiltration dynamics and cytokine production with severity of illness. Surgery, 132(1):86-92.

[46] Moine, P., McIntyre, R., Schwartz, M.D., Kaneko, D., Shenkar, R., Le Tulzo, Y., Moore, E.E., Abraham, E., 2000. NF-kappaB regulatory mechanisms in alveolar macrophages from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Shock, 13(2):85-91.

[47] Ni, Q.X., Zhang, N., Zhang, Q.H., Zhang, Y.L., Xiang, Y., Zheng, S.G., Luo, J.M., 1998. study on combined prevention and treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis complicated with lung injury by somatostatin and somatotropin. Chin. J. Exp. Surg., 15(5):404-406 (in Chinese).

[48] Ogawa, M., 1998. Acute pancreatitis and cytokines: “second attack” by septic complication leads to organ failure. Pancreas, 16(3):312-315.

[49] Omoya, T., Shimizu, I., Zhou, Y., Okamura, Y., Inoue, H., Lu, G., Itonaga, M., Honda, H., Nomura, M., Ito, S., 2001. Effects of idoxifene and estradiol on NF-kappaB activation in cultured rat hepatocytes undergoing oxidative stress. Liver Int., 21(3):183-191.

[50] Rau, B., Baumgart, K., Paszkowski, A.S., Mayer, J.M., Beger, H.G., 2001. Clinical relevance of caspase-1 activated cytokines in acute pancreatitis: high correlation of serum interleukin-18 with pancreatic necrosis and systemic complications. Crit. Care Med., 29(8):1556-1562.

[51] Reinhardt, J.C., Cui, X.Y., Roudebush, W.E., 1999. Immunofluorescent evidence of the platelet-activating factor receptor on human spermatozoa. Fertil. Steril., 71(5):941-942.

[52] Rockey, D.C., Chung, J.J., 1996. Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Am. J. Physiol., 271(2 Pt 1):260-267.

[53] Roudebush, W.E., Wild, M.D., Maguire, E.H., 2000. Expression of the platelet-activating factor receptor in human spermatozoa: differences in messenger ribonucleic acid content and protein distribution between normal and abnormal spermatozoa. Fertil. Steril., 73(5):967-971.

[54] Schroeder, R.A., Gu, J.S., Kuo, P.C., 1998. Interleukin 1beta-stimulated production of nitric oxide in rat hepatocytes is mediated through endogenous synthesis of interferon gamma. Hepatology, 27(3):711-719.

[55] Scott, P., Bruce, C., Schofield, D., Shiel, N., Braganza, J.M., McCloy, R.F., 1993. Vitamin C status in patient with acute pancreatitis. Br. J. Surg., 80(6):750-754.

[56] Shames, B.D., Barton, H.H., Raznikov, L.L., Cairns, C.B., Banerjee, A., Harken, A.H., Meng, X., 2002. Ischemia alone is sufficient to induce TNF-alpha mRNA and peptide in the myocardium. Shock, 17(2):114-119.

[57] Shen, J., Zhao, J.Y., Teng, C.H., Xiao, H., Wu, Z.P., Wang, K.M., Jin, J.J., Su, D.X., Li, Z., Wang, Y.L., et al., 1991. Influence of iproveratril on pancreatic blood flow, plasma thromboxane and prostacyclin of acute pancreatitis. Chin. Med. J., 71(9):488-491 (in Chinese).

[58] Shen, J., Xiao, H., Wu, Z.P., Song, Y.H., Liu, M., 1997. Role of plasma arachidonic acid metabolic disturbance in rat acute pancreatitis hepatic injury. China Natl. J. New Gastroenterol., 5(9):589-590 (in Chinese).

[59] Shields, C.J., Sookhai, S., Winter, D.C., Dowdall, J.F., Kingston, G., Parfrey, N., Wang, J.H., Kirwan, W.O., Redmond, H.P., 2001. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline. Surg. Infect. (Larchmt), 2(3):215-224.

[60] Shields, C.J., Winter, D.C., Redmond, H.P., 2002. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy. Curr. Opin. Crit. Care, 8(2):158-163.

[61] Shimada, M., Andoh, A., Hata, K., Tasaki, K., Araki, Y., Fujiyama, Y., Bamba, T., 2002. IL-6 secretion by human pancreatic periacinar mypfibroblasts in response to inflammatory mediators. J. Immunol., 168(2):861-868.

[62] Song, A.M., Bhagat, L., Singh, V.P., van Acker, G.G., Steer, M.L., Saluja, A.K., 2002. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 ameliorates the severity of pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 283(3):G1166-G1174.

[63] Suk, K., Yeou Kim, S., Kim, H., 2001. Regulation of IL-18 production by IFN gamma and PGE2 in mouse microglial cells: involvement of NF-κB pathway in the regulatory processes. Immunol. Lett., 77(2):79-85.

[64] Sun, C.L., Li, J.S., Zhu, W.M., Wang, J.J., 1998. Influence of prostaglandin E1 on pancreatitis rat pancreatic blood flow. Chin. Crit. Care Med., 10(3):154-157 (in Chinese).

[65] Sun, W., Zhang, J.D., Zhao, Y., Zhao, Y., Wang, Q., 2003. Expression of IL-6 and integrin family adhesion molecule in model of rat with acute necrotizing pancreatitis complicated with multi-organ injury. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 11(6):753-755 (in Chinese).

[66] Suzuki, S., Nakamura, S., Serizawa, A., Sakaguchi, T., Konno, H., Muro, H., Kosugi, I., Baba, S., 1996. Role of Kupffer cells and the spleen in modulation of endotoxin-induced liver injury after partial hepatectomy. Hepatology, 24(1):219-225.

[67] Theuer, J., Dechend, R., Muller, D.N., Park, J.K., Fiebeler, A., Barta, P., Ganten, D., Haller, H., Dietz, R., Luft, F.C., 2002. Angiotesin II induced inflammation in the kidney and in the heart of double transgenic rats. BMC Cardiovasc. Disord., 2(1):3.

[68] Trapnell, J.E., 1981. Pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. World J. Surg., 5(3):319-327.

[69] Ueda, T., Ho, H.S., Anderson, S.E., Takeyama, Y., 1999. Pancreatitis-induced ascitic fluid and hepatocellular dysfunction in severe acute pancreatitis. J. Surg. Res., 82(2):305-311.

[70] Ueda, T., Takeyama, Y., Hori, Y., Takase, K., Goshima, M., Kuroda, Y., 2000. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration on hepatocytes. J. Surg. Res., 93(1):171-176.

[71] Ueda, T., Takeyama, Y., Takase, K., Hori, Y., Kuroda, Y., Ho, H.S., 2002. Hematin is one of the cytotoxic factors in pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid that causes hepatocellular injury. Surgery, 131(1):66-74.

[72] Valen, G., Yan, Z.Q., Hansson, G.K., 2001. Nuclear factor kappa-B and the heart. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 38(2):307-314.

[73] Wang, Y., 2003. Clinical analysis on 137 cases of acute pancreatitis hepatic injury. J. Pract. Med., 19(6):670-671 (in Chinese).

[74] Wang, Y.M., Ding, J., Gu, Y.H., Liu, G.D., Yuan, L.P., Chen, G.Z., 1996. Study in vitro on mechanism of endotoxin/TNF causing hepatic cell injury. Chin. J. Infect. Dis., 14(1):1-3 (in Chinese).

[75] Wang, H., Tan, X., Chang, H., Gonzalez-Crussi, F., Remick, D.G., Hsueh, W., 1997. Regulation of platelet-activating factor receptor gene expression in vivo by endotoxin, platelet-activating factor and endogenous tumour necrosis factor. Biochem. J., 322(Pt 2):603-608.

[76] Wang, K.H., Liao, J.X., Li, D.K., Liao, X.W., Qin, M.H., 1998. Plasma thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin changes in acute pancreatitis rats after perfusion of microcirculation improving drugs via various ways. Chin. J. Exp. Surg., 15(5):396-398 (in Chinese).

[77] Wang, C.H., Qian, D.K., Zhu, Y.L., Tang, X.Q., 2001. Significance of changes of serum level of TNF and IL-6 in patients with acute pancreatitis. World Chin. J. Digestol., 9(12):1434 (in Chinese).

[78] Wang, Z., Castresana, M.R., Detmer, K., Newman, W.H., 2002. An IkappaB-alpha mutant inhibits cytokine gene expression and proliferation in human vascular smooth muscle cells. J. Surg. Res., 102(2):198-206.

[79] Wereszczynska, U., Dlugosz, J., Gabryelewicz, A., Andrzejewska, A., 1986. The lung lysosomal hydrolases and phospholipase A in acute experimental pancreatitis with reference to heparin treatment. Pathol. Res. Pract., 181(5):576-585.

[80] Wereszczynska, U., Dlugosz, J.W., Siemiatkowski, A., Chyczewski, L., Gabryelewicz, A., 2000. Lysosomal activity of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in acute experimental pancreatitis in rats with reference to positive PAF-antagonist (BN 52021) effect. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 52(2):119-125.

[81] Windsor, J.A., Fearon, K.C., Ross, J.A., Barclay, G.R., Smyth, E., Poxton, I., Garden, O.J., Carter, D.C., 1993. Role of serum endotoxin and antiendotoxin core antibody levels in predicting the development of multiple organ failune in acute pancreatitis. Br. J. Surg., 80(8):1042-1046.

[82] Wright, G., Singh, I.S., Hasday, J.D., Farrance, I.K., Hall, G., Gross, A.S., Roger, T.B., 2002. Endotoxin stress-response in cardiomyocytes: NF-kappaB activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Cire Physiol., 282(3):872-879.

[83] Wu, W.K., 2001. The etiological factor and pathology. World Chin. J. Digestol., 9(4):410-411 (in Chinese).

[84] Wu, G., Mao, B., Tang, W.F. Jiang, J.M., Wang, L., 1999. Relation between changes of plasma thromboxane and prostacyclin and platelet quantity in severe acute pancreatitis patients. J. Chengdu Univ. Tradit. Chin. Med., 22(1):14-15 (in Chinese).

[85] Wu, G., Liang, S.Z., Tang, W.F., Jiang, J.M., Wang, L., 2000. Relation between vasoactive substance changes and hepatic injury of severe acute pancreatitis patients. J. Chengdu Univ. Tradit. Chin. Med., 23(1):7-8 (in Chinese).

[86] Xia, S.H., Zhao, X.Y., Guo, P., Da, S.P., 2001. Hemocirculatory disorder in dogs with severe acute pancreatitis and intervention of platelet activating factor antagonist. World Chin. J. Digestol., 9(5):550-554 (in Chinese).

[87] Yang, Y.Z., Wang, H., Zhan, C.K., Peng, L.M., Guo, C.X., 2003. Treatment of 24 cases of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with multi-organ failure. Chongqing Med. J., 32(10):1388-1389 (in Chinese).

[88] Yousaf, M., McCallion, K., Diamond, T., 2003. Management of severe acute pancreatitis. Br. J. Surg., 90(4):407-420.

[89] Zhang, J.H., 2003. Clinical analysis of 52 cases of acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury. Clin. Med. China, 19(8):708-709 (in Chinese).

[90] Zhang, Q.H., Cai, D., Wu, S.Q., Qiang, Y.F., Hou, L.D., Zhang, Y.L., 1997. Changes of inflammatory transmitter in acute necrotizing pancreatitis rat and effects of somatostatin. Chin. Med. J., 5(3):355 (in Chinese).

[91] Zhao, H., Chen, J.W., Zhou, Y.K., Zhou, X.F., Li, P.Y., 2003. Influence of platelet activating factor on expression of adhesion molecules in experimental pancreatitis. World J. Gastroenterol., 9(2):338-341.

[92] Zhou, R.R., Liang, P., 1999a. Injury of rat ex vivo hepatic cell by endotoxin. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 7(5):424-425 (in Chinese).

[93] Zhou, R.R., Liang, P., 1999b. Injuring effects of endotoxin on rat hepatic cell at various time of culture. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 7(5):431-432 (in Chinese).

[94] Zhou, X.Z., Mao, Q.S., Chen, Y.Q., Shen, H.X., 2000. Relation between pathological feature of rat with acute pancreatitis and changes of oxygen free radical. Shijie Huaren Xiaohua Zazhi, 8(1):108-109 (in Chinese).

[95] Zhou, Z., Chen, Y., Yu, Y., Chen, H., 2002. Hemorheology and expression of neutrophil adhesion molecules CD18 and CD62L in pancreatic microcirculation of Caerulein induced experimental acute pancreatitis. Zhonghua Yufang Yixue Zazhi, 36(8):528-530 (in Chinese).

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion

<1>

Pedro@Guarez<juegos@uditu.com>

2012-11-16 21:04:55

Very good!

Please provide your name, email address and a comment





Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE