Full Text:   <5610>

CLC number: S635

On-line Access: 

Received: 2009-02-24

Revision Accepted: 2009-04-20

Crosschecked: 2009-07-14

Cited: 65

Clicked: 10278

Citations:  Bibtex RefMan EndNote GB/T7714

-   Go to

Article info.
1. Reference List
Open peer comments

Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 2009 Vol.10 No.8 P.580-588


Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli

Author(s):  Gao-feng YUAN, Bo SUN, Jing YUAN, Qiao-mei WANG

Affiliation(s):  Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China; more

Corresponding email(s):   qmwang@zju.edu.cn

Key Words:  Broccoli, Cooking, Glucosinolates, Vitamin C, Chlorophyll, Soluble sugar

Gao-feng YUAN, Bo SUN, Jing YUAN, Qiao-mei WANG. Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli[J]. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 2009, 10(8): 580-588.

@article{title="Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli",
author="Gao-feng YUAN, Bo SUN, Jing YUAN, Qiao-mei WANG",
journal="Journal of Zhejiang University Science B",
publisher="Zhejiang University Press & Springer",

%0 Journal Article
%T Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli
%A Gao-feng YUAN
%A Jing YUAN
%A Qiao-mei WANG
%J Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B
%V 10
%N 8
%P 580-588
%@ 1673-1581
%D 2009
%I Zhejiang University Press & Springer
%DOI 10.1631/jzus.B0920051

T1 - Effects of different cooking methods on health-promoting compounds of broccoli
A1 - Gao-feng YUAN
A1 - Bo SUN
A1 - Jing YUAN
A1 - Qiao-mei WANG
J0 - Journal of Zhejiang University Science B
VL - 10
IS - 8
SP - 580
EP - 588
%@ 1673-1581
Y1 - 2009
PB - Zhejiang University Press & Springer
ER -
DOI - 10.1631/jzus.B0920051

The effects of five domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwaving, boiling, stir-frying, and stir-frying followed by boiling (stir-frying/boiling), on the nutrients and health-promoting compounds of broccoli were investigated. The results show that all cooking treatments, except steaming, caused significant losses of chlorophyll and vitamin C and significant decreases of total soluble proteins and soluble sugars. Total aliphatic and indole glucosinolates were significantly modified by all cooking treatments but not by steaming. In general, the steaming led to the lowest loss of total glucosinolates, while stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling presented the highest loss. Stir-frying and stir-frying/boiling, the two most popular methods for most homemade dishes in China, cause great losses of chlorophyll, soluble protein, soluble sugar, vitamin C, and glucosinolates, but the steaming method appears the best in retention of the nutrients in cooking broccoli.

Darkslateblue:Affiliate; Royal Blue:Author; Turquoise:Article


[1] Adebooye, O.C., Vijayalakshmi, R., Singh, V., 2008. Peroxidase activity, chlorophylls and antioxidant profile of two leaf vegetables (Solanum nigrum L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) under six pretreatment methods before cooking. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 43(1):173-178.

[2] AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), 1990. Official Method 985.33. Vitamin C (Reduced Ascorbic Acid) in Ready-to-feed Milk-based Infant Formula 2,6-Dichloroindophenol Titrimetric Method. In: Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC International, Washington DC, p.1108-1109.

[3] Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analyt. Biochem., 72(1-2):248-254.

[4] Cieslik, E., Leszczynska, T., Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A., Sikora, E., Pisulewski, P.M., 2007. Effects of some technological processes on glucosinolate contents in cruciferous vegetables. Food Chem., 105(3):976-981.

[5] Ciska, E., Kozlowska, H., 2001. The effect of cooking on the glucosinolates content in white cabbage. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 212(5):582-587.

[6] Gliszczyńska-Świgło, A., Ciska, E., Pawlak-Lemanska, K., Chmielewski, J., Borkowski, T., Tyrakowska, B., 2006. Changes in the content of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of broccoli after domestic processing. Food Addit. Contam., 23(11):1088-1098.

[7] Haughn, G.W., Davin, L., Giblin, M., Underhill, E.W., 1991. Biochemical genetics of plant secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana: the glucosinolates. Plant Physiol. 97(1):217-226.

[8] Hudson, D.E., Dalal, A., Lachance, P.A., 1985. Retention of vitamins in fresh and frozen broccoli prepared by different cooking methods. J. Food Qual., 8(1):45-50.

[9] Jia, C.G., Xu, C.J., Wei, J., Yuan, J., Yuan, G.F., Wang, B.L., Wang, Q.M., 2009. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on visual quality and glucosinolates of broccoli florets. Food Chem., 114(1):28-37.

[10] Lee, S.K., Kader, A.A., 2000. Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 20(3):207-220.

[11] Lin, C.H., Chang, C.Y., 2005. Textural change and antioxidant properties of broccoli under different cooking treatments. Food Chem., 90(1-2):9-15.

[12] Liu, X.Q., Li, Y.H., 2000. Epidemiological and nutritional research on prevention of cardiovascular disease in China. Br. J. Nutr., 84(6):S199-S203.

[13] López-Berenguer, C., Carvajal, M., Moreno, D.A., Garcia-Viguera, C., 2007. Effects of microwave cooking conditions on bioactive compounds present in broccoli inflorescences. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(24):10001-10007.

[14] Masrizal, M.A., Giraud, D.W., Driskell, J.A., 1997. Retention of vitamin C, iron, and beta-carotene in vegetables prepared using different cooking methods. J. Food Qual., 20(5):403-418.

[15] Matusheski, N.V., Swarup, R., Juvik, J.A., Mithen, R., Bennett, M, Jeffery, E.H., 2006. Epithiospecifier protein from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) inhibits formation of the anticancer agent sulforaphane. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(6):2069-2076.

[16] Miglio, C., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V., Pellegrini, N., 2008. Effects of different cooking methods on nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of selected vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(1):139-147.

[17] Nisha, P., Singhal, R.S., Pandit, A.B., 2004. A study on the degradation kinetics of visual green colour in spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and the effect of salt therein. J. Food Eng., 64(1):135-142.

[18] Oerlemans, K., Barrett, D.M., Suades, C.B., Verkerk, R., Dekker, M., 2006. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage. Food Chem., 95(1):19-29.

[19] Roe, J.H., 1955. The determination of sugar in blood and spinal fluid with anthrone reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 212: 335-343.

[20] Rosa, E.A.S., Heaney, R.K., 1993. The effect of cooking and processing on the glucosinolate content: studies on 4 varieties of Portuguese cabbage and hybrid white cabbage. J. Sci. Food Agric., 62(3):259-265.

[21] Rungapamestry, V., Duncan, A.J., Fuller, Z., Ratcliffe, B., 2006. Changes in glucosinolate concentrations, myrosinase activity, and production of metabolites of glucosinolates in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cooked for different durations. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(20):7628-7634.

[22] Rungapamestry, V., Duncan, A.J., Fuller, Z., Ratcliffe, B., 2007. Effect of cooking Brassica vegetables on the subsequent hydrolysis and metabolic fate of glucosinolates. Proceed. Nutr. Soc., 66(1):69-81.

[23] Schreiner, M.C., Peters, P.J., Krumbein, A.B., 2006. Glucosinolates in mixed-packaged mini broccoli and mini cauliflower under modified atmosphere. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(6):2218-2222.

[24] Serrano, M., Martinez-Romero, D., Guillen, F., Castillo, S., Valero, D., 2006. Maintenance of broccoli quality and functional properties during cold storage as affected by modified atmosphere packaging. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 39(1):61-68.

[25] Sikora, E., Cieslik, E., Leszczynska, T., Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A., Pisulewski, P.M., 2008. The antioxidant activity of selected cruciferous vegetables subjected to aquathermal processing. Food Chem., 107(1):55-59.

[26] Song, L.J., Thornalley, P.J., 2007. Effect of storage, processing and cooking on glucosinolate content of Brassica vegetables. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45(2):216-224.

[27] Traka, M., Mithen, R., 2009. Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and human health. Phytochem. Rev., 8(1):269-282.

[28] Turkmen, N., Poyrazoglu, E.S., Sari, F., Velioglu, Y.S., 2006. Effects of cooking methods on chlorophylls, pheophytins and colour of selected green vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 41(3):281-288.

[29] Vallejo, F., Tomas-Barberan, F.A., Garcia-Viguera, C., 2002. Glucosinolates and vitamin C content in edible parts of broccoli florets after domestic cooking. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 215(4):310-316.

[30] Verkerk, R., Dekker, M., 2004. Glucosinolates and myrosinase activity in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after various microwave treatments. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(24):7318-7323.

[31] Verkerk, R., Schreiner, M., Krumbein, A., Ciska, E., Holst, B., Rowland, I., Schrijver, R.D., Hansen, M., Gerhäuser, C., Mithen, R., Dekker, M., 2008. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., online.

[32] Volden, J., Borge, G.I.A., Bengtsson, G.B., Hansen, M., Thygesen, I.E., Wicklund, T., 2008a. Effect of thermal treatment on glucosinolates and antioxidant-related parameters in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. rubra). Food Chem., 109(3):595-605.

[33] Volden, J., Wicklund, T., Verkerk, R., Dekker, M., 2008b. Kinetics of changes in glucosinolate concentrations during long-term cooking of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba). J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(6):2068-2073.

[34] Zhang, D.L., Hamauzu, Y., 2004. Phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of broccoli and their changes during conventional and microwave cooking. Food Chem., 88(4):503-509.

Open peer comments: Debate/Discuss/Question/Opinion


Please provide your name, email address and a comment

Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, China
Tel: +86-571-87952783; E-mail: cjzhang@zju.edu.cn
Copyright © 2000 - 2024 Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE